Chapter 20 Visual Summary Economic Causes and Effects of the Second Industrial Revolution Steel, chemicals, electricity, and petroleum led a new wave of economic growth in the late 1800s. The introduction of assembly lines made mass production of goods more efficient. Industrialization raised the standard of living for many people in Europe. Harsh conditions caused many people to turn to socialism and trade unions. By the early 1900s, Europe dominated the world economy. Social Effects of the Second Industrial Revolution The rapid growth of cities forced local gvts to improve public health and sanitation services. Europe’s small elite class controlled much of the wealth; the working classes made up around 80 percent of the European population. Women began to push for the right to vote. The work of Curie, Einstein, and Freud led many people, including artists, to question the nature of reality. International Rivalries Set the Stage for War Democracy expanded in Western Europe, while Central and Eastern Europe remained authoritarian. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed a defensive alliance called the Triple Alliance. France joined Britain and Russia in the Triple Entente. The rivalry between Austria and Russia for influence in the Balkans pushed a dangerously divided Europe toward war.