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Psychoses are characterized by all of the following except
a. severe distortions of reality.
b. affective disturbances.
c. problems with intellectual functioning.
d. savant-like increases in intelligence.
Concerning the incidence and severity of schizophrenia,
a. although treatment is available, about 50% of people with the disorder spend a large part of their lives in mental hospitals.
b. approximately 5% of the general population will receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia at some point
c. the disorder is considered chronic and incurable.
d. the incidence of the disorder is highest among young women in their late teens and early twenties.
Which of the following is not a typical symptom of schizophrenia?
a. Auditory hallucinations
b. Delusions of persecution
c. Vague or illogical speech
d. Severe anxiety
Which of the following abt diagnosis of schizophrenia is false?
a. Clinicians do not agree on whether it is a single disorder or a group of disorders.
b. The severity of the disorder and unusual symptoms make diagnosis straightforward.
c. Diagnosis is complicated because symptoms of the disorder change over time.
d. There are several subtypes of schizophrenia recognized by DSM making the task more complex.
Which of the following is not a subtype of schizophrenia, according to Kraepelin?
According to the positive/negative symptom classification scheme for schizophrenia,
a. people with positive symptoms have a poor outcome as they do not respond well to medications.
b. positive symptoms are made worse by drugs that increase dopamine.
c. people with negative symptoms tend to develop their problems in adulthood.
d. delusions and hallucinations are examples of negative symptoms.
All of the following were treatments used for schizophrenia prior to 1956 except
a. insulin-induced seizures.
d. prefrontal lobotomy.
Which of the following are not structural changes observed in the brains of people with schizophrenia?
a. Reduced volume of the temporal lobe and limbic structures
b. Shrinkage of the ventricles
c. Atrophy of selected cortical layers
d. Disorganized arrangement of hippocampal cells
The most consistent functional abnormality in the brains of individuals with schizophrenia is
a. global rather than localized EEG responses to stimuli.
b. eye-movement problems that impair the ability to track objects.
d. a deficit in stimulus perception and cognitive processing.
All of the following support the idea of a strong genetic component to schizophrenia except
a. the MZ twin concordance rate is 48% but they share 100% of their genes.
b. 1st deg relatives of schizophrenics are 12x more likely than the generalpopulation to develop schizophrenia at some point in their lifetimes.
c. second-degree relatives of schizophrenics are four times more likely than the general population to develop schizophrenia in their lifetimes.
dwhen twins are reared apart, diff in rates is same, with the MZ rates higher than the DZ rates.
Molecular genetic research
a. has moved forward on the assumption that schizophrenia involves multiple genes located at different loci.
b. has identified potential “schizophrenia genes” on chromosomes 6, 8, 13, and 22.
c. uses either linkage studies or considers candidate genes in its search for the genetic basis of schizophrenia.
d. All of the above
All are correct regarding the epigenetic modification of theRELN gene, which codes for the protein reelin, except
a. acetylation causes a more open chromatin state and results in enhanced reelin production.
b. methionine makes schiz symptoms worse for more than 60% of patients tested.
c. disruption of reelin production could affect neuronal positioning during development.
d. studies have demonstrated a decrease in reelin in the brains of schizophrenic patients that could be explained by hypermethylation.
DISC1 gene codes for proteins _______ and polymorphisms in this gene are associated with _______.
a. involved in monoamine synthesis; impairments in working memory
b. involved in intracellular transport and axon elongation; motor disturbances
c. involved in neurogenesis and neuronal migration; impairments in performance on the WCST
d. found in dendritic spines; enlarged ventricles
Which of the following is not an example of a prenatal or perinatal complication that is associated with schizophrenia?
a. Exposure to viral infection during the second trimester
b. Being delivered by Caesarean section
c. Oxygen deprivation during birth
d. Severe malnutrition
Which doesnt support the idea that CNS stimulants produce a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia?
a. High doses of amphetamine in animals produce stereotyped licking, sniffing, and gnawing.
b. Cocaine and amphetamine addicts often have hallucinations and delusions.
c. Clinicians have difficulty discriminating between paranoid schizophrenia and drug-induced psychosis.
d. Amphetamine given to schizophrenics causes the occurrence of new symptoms.
Researchers evaluate potential antipsychotic drugs with the apomorphine and catalepsy screening tests because they
a. measure the drug’s effectiveness in reducing stereotyped behavior.
b. test the drug’s ability to affect the DA system.
c. determine whether the drug is likely to have motor side effects at an effective therapeutic dose.
d. examine the effects of potential drugs on tasks that measure the overall severity of side effects.
the neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion model show that lesioned rats exhibit _______ earlier and _______ later in development, and that_______ potentiates behavioral and biological outcomes.
a. negative-like symptoms; enhanced stress responses; tetrodotoxin
b. negative-like symptoms; positive-like symptoms; early stress
c. positive-like symptoms; cognitive-like symptoms; antipsychotics
d. enhanced stress responses; impaired cognitive function; antipsychotics
Which of the following does not support the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia?
a. Amphetamine produces a greater release of dopamine in schizophrenics than in control subjects.
b. Baseline levels of HVA do not differentiate controls and schizophrenics.
c. Increased dopamine receptors are found in postmortem schizophrenic brains.
d. Increasing the challenge dose of amphetamine makes schizophrenics’ positive symptoms get progressively worse.
What model of schizophrenia integrates the neurochemical data with the neuroanatomical findings concerning the disorder?
a. The dopamine hypothesis
b. The glutamate-dopamine model
c. The DA imbalance hypothesis
d. The neurodevelopmental model
Which of the following is not a part of the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia?
a. Cognitive functions are most affected by the excess activity in the disinhibited mesolimbic pathway.
b. Early damage to the mesocortical pathway results in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
c. Hypofrontality results in a loss of inhibition of limbic structures, leading to positive symptoms.
d. The developmental event that causes the initial damage could be one of many factors; it is not a specific causal agent.
Research related to glutamate-dopamine interactions in schizophrenia has shown that
a. dopamine cells presynaptically modulate glutamate.
b. blocking dopamine with traditional neuroleptic drugs also decreases glutamate.
c. schizophrenics have low levels of glutamate in the CSF.
d. cortical glutamate normally increases subcortical dopamine activity.
a. are the largest and most commonly used class of antipsychotic medications.
b. include the medications risperidone and aripiprazole.
c. are sometimes referred to as the atypical antipsychotics.
d. have fewer side effects than the second-generation antipsychotics.
Which of the following about the effectiveness of the traditional antipsychotic drugs is false?
a. About one third of patients respond very well to medications and may achieve a relatively normal life.
b. Approximately one third of patients remain hospitalized due to poor response to medication.
c. The main therapeutic effect of these medications is to reduce cognitive deficits and emotional responsivity.
d. About one third of patients improve on medications but suffer relapses, and need a great deal of support and assistance to deal with daily stresses.
All of the following evidence supports the idea that traditional antipsychotic medications act on the dopamine system except
a. there is a decrease in dopamine-induced prolactin release from the pituitary gland during treatment with antipsychotic drugs.
b. there is a positive correlation between the potency of an antipsychotic drug and its ability to displace a labeled ligand from dopamine receptors.
c. antipsychotic drugs cause parkinsonian side effects, which are known to involvedopamine.
d. antipsychotics that have lower affinity for DA receptors require higher doses to be clinically effective.
The _______ receptor is most involved in the therapeutic effects of the traditional antipsychotics?
The time course of effectiveness for antipsychotic medications has been explained by all of the following observations except that
a. dopamine receptor blockade is not directly linked to clinical improvement.
b. chronic dopamine autoreceptor blockade may result in receptor supersensitivity, and hence decreased dopamine turnover.
c. depolarization block can occur in response to increased dopamine turnover, which results from the initial antipsychotic drug blockade of receptors.
d. over time, antipsychotics decreased their binding to DA receptors and start acting at other receptor populations.
Which of the following is not a dopamine pathway affected by antipsychotic medications?
a. Pathway from hypothalamus to pituitary
b. Mesocortical pathway
c. Pathway from the thalamus to the cortex
d. Nigrostriatal pathway
Parkinsonian symptoms in schizophrenia include all of the following except
d. loss of facial expressions.
How can parkinsonian side effects from antipsychotic medications be treated?
a. Use anticholinergic drugs like Cogentin.
b. Because these effects are due to receptor supersensitivity, add another dopamine blocker from the phenothiazine class.
c. Use drugs that increase acetylcholine to balance the effects of dopamine blockade.
d. Add an atypical antipsychotic to the traditional neuroleptic medications.
All of the following are true of tardive dyskinesia (TD) except
a. it occurs in about 10–20% of people treated with neuroleptic medications.
b. the cause of TD is not well understood, but it may be linked to excess dopamine receptors or a D1-D2 receptor imbalance.
c. the incidence of TD tends to decrease with increasing age of patients.
d. it is a motor side effect of neuroleptics that may be irreversible in some patients.
Which of the following is not a neuroendocrine side effect of the traditional antipsychotic medications?
a. Breast enlargement
b. Lack of menstruation
c. Inhibition of growth hormone
d. Increased sex drive
Doctors generally take into consideration all of the following side effects when choosing a particular antipsychotic drug for a schizophrenic patient except for
b. autonomic side effects.
d. abuse potential.
Which of the following statements about the abuse potential and dangers of antipsychotic medications is false?
a. Antipsychotics are rarely abused because they produce no euphoria.
b. Tolerance to the side effects of neuroleptics has not been observed, which helps to preserve their status as non-abused drugs.
c. Neuroleptic medications have a high therapeutic index and are very unlikely to be involved in overdoses.
d. Physical dependence and a withdrawal syndrome have not been observed with use of antipsychotic medications.
Why are selective D2 receptor antagonists like sulpiride unacceptable as antipsychotic agents?
a. They cause too much sedation.
b. Their effects on the autonomic nervous system are not tolerated well by patients.
c. They have common hormonal side effects.
d. They impact the cardiovascular system more than researchers had hoped.
The newest antipsychotic medications are
a. atypical neuroleptics.
c. dopamine system stabilizers.
Abilify (aripiprazole) can simultaneously decrease DA receptor activation in some brain regions and increase it in others because it is classified as a(n)
a. partial agonist.
b. competitive antagonist.
c. noncompetitive antagonist.
d. inverse agonist.
Which of the following regarding broad-spectrum antipsychotics is false?
a. They block many receptor types, in addition to the D2 receptor.
b. They include the first discovered atypical neuroleptic, clozapine.
c. They work best with some combination of D2 and 5-HT2 receptor blockade.
d. They typically show high affinity for D1 receptors.
All of the following are advantages of clozapine treatment of schizophreniaexcept
a. it works more quickly than the older medications.
b. it has a low incidence of motor side effects.
c. it helps about 60% of patients who do not respond to traditional medications.
d. it reduces negative symptoms of the disorder.
Which of the following is not a drawback to using the drug clozapine to treat schizophrenia?
a. It reduces the seizure threshold.
b. It can cause agranulocytosis.
c. It causes the dry mouth syndrome.
d. It can cause cardiovascular problems.
Results from CATIE, a blinded controlled study comparing multiple antipsychotics to replicate “real-world” prescriptions to a representative patient population, showed all of the following except that
a. approximately 75% of patients had to switch medications.
b. atypical drugs were no more effective than the classical neuroleptic.
c. the newer drugs did a better job of reducing cognitive symptoms.
d. the incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms was the same for all drugs.
To address the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia, new pharmacological approaches are being developed that target specific aspects of various neurotransmitter systems, including
a. acetylcholine, dopamine, and glutamate.
b. serotonin and glutamate.
c. GABA and glutamate.
d. glycine, dopamine, and GABA.
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