student societies in the German states dedicated to fostering the goal of a free, united Germany.
a movement in Italy in the nineteenth century aimed at the creation of a united republic.
Balance of Power
a distribution of power among several states such that no single nation can dominate or interfere with the interests of another.
an ideology based on tradition and social stability that favored the maintenence of established institutions, organized religion, and obedience to authority and resisted change, especially abrupt change.
a form of literature used by Romantics to emphesize the bizarre and unusual, especially evident in horror stories.
Principle of intervention
the idea, after the Congress of Vienna, that the great powers of Europe had the right to send armies into countries experienceing revolution to restore legitimate monarchs to their thrones.
Principle of legitimacy
the idea that after the Napoleonic wars, peace could best be reestablished in Europe by restoring legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions.
an ideology based on the belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible. Economic liberalism is the idea that the government should not interfere in the workings of the economy. Political liberalism is the idea that there should be restraints on the exercise of power so that people can enjoy basic civil rights in a constitutional state with a representative assembly.
a tenent of nineteenth–century liberalism that held that ministers of the monarch should be responsible to the legislative assemble rather than to the monarch.
a doctrine that equates God with the universe and all that is in it.
a self–sustaining cooperative community, as advocated by Charles Fourier in the early ninteenth century.
an ideology that calls for collective or government ownership of the means of production and the distribution of goods.
in nineteenth–century France, a group of aristocrats who sought to return to a monarchial system dominated by a landed aristocracy and the Catholic Church.
intellectuals and theorists in the early ninteenth century who favored equality in social and economic conditions and wished to replace private property and competition with collective ownership and cooperation.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Democracy in America,
he analyzed merits and weaknesses of American democratic society
saw it as the political system of the future, but also as a potentially dangerous one
Danger is that people will surrender liberty to government in exchange for property
He also argued that democracy spawns a selfish individualism
Britain’s Tories and Whigs:
-the two political parties of the time. - the Tories were more traditionally the greater power, while the Whigs were traditionally weaker. - Parliament was traditionally made up of landed aristocracy. - the Whigs gained popularity as more and more middle class men mainly industrialists joined its ranks - as this happened the Whigs began to pass more liberal economic acts, while the Tories passed acts to gaurantee better working conditions.
1821. Greeks rebelled against the Ottomans, who ruled over them - caused by Greek nationalism. supported by the Quadruple Alliance - 1827: British & French fleet went to Greece, defeated a large Ottoman fleet - 1828: Russia declared war on Ottomans, invaded Ottoman territories Moldavia and Wallachia1829: Treaty of Adrianople ended the war between Russia & Ottomans, also ended revolt. SUCCESSFUL.Greece was declared an independent kingdom in 1830, got a new royal dynasty in 1832
John Stuart Mill
On Liberty -Statement on the freedom of opinion and sentiment for every individual. -Did not believe in government or tyranny control of an individual's freedom.
Giuseppe Mazzini and Young Italy:
- He was a leader of the Italian risorgimento-the movement for Italian nationhood.In 1831 he was the founder of the organization known as Young Italy.He was able to encourage not only men but women and children to rally together in the support of their country. -His main goal was to unite the people by constancy and unity of effort to the great aim of reconstituting Italy as one independent sovereign nations of free men and equals.
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