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Danielle N.

black hole

object whose gravity is so strong that the escape speed exceeds the speed of light

black hole evaporation

process by which black holes emit particles

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collapsar

proposed type of supernova in which a black hole forms at the center of a dying star before the outer layers of the star have time to collapse

equivalence principle

in a small volume of space, the downward pull of gravity can be accurately and completely duplicated by an upward acceleration of the observer

ergoregion

region of space immediately outside the event horizon of a rotating black hole where it is impossible to remain at rest

event horizon

location around a black hole where the escape speed equals the speed of light; surface of a black hole

gamma-ray burster

objects found in all parts of the sky that emit a one-time intense burst of high-energy radiation

general theory of relativity

gravity affects the geometry of space and the flow of time

gravitational radiation

oscillations of space produced by changes in the distribution of matter

gravitational redshift

increase in the wavelength of a photon as it climbs upward in a gravitational field

Heisenberg uncertainty principle

principle of quantum mechanics that place limits on the precision of simultaneous measurements

intermediate-mass black hole

mid mass black hole

law of cosmic censorship

all singularities must be surrounded by an event horizon

length contraction

shrinking of an object's length along its direction of motion

Lorentz transformations

equations that relate the measurements of different observers who are moving relative to each other at high speeds

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mid-mass black hole

black hole with a mass of 100 suns

no hair theorem

statement of the simplicity of black holes

primordial black hole

type of black hole that may have formed in the very early universe

Schwarzschild radius

distance form the singularity to the event horizon in a nonrotating black hole

singularity

place of infinite space-time curvature; center of a black hole

spacetime

four-dimensional combination of time and the three dimensions of space

special theory of relativity

measurements of distance, time and mass are affected by the observer's motion

stellar-mass black hole

black hole with a mass comparable to that of a star

supermassive black hole

black hole with a mass of a million or more suns

time dilation

slowing of time due to relativistic motion

virtual pairs

particle and antiparticle that exist for such a brief interval that they cannot be observed

wormhole

conjectured connection between different regions of spacetime made possible by the gravitational effects of a black hole

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