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1)Gas exchange in the aquatic salamander known as the axolotl is correctlydescribed as
A) active transport to move oxygen into thesalamander from the water.
B) carrier-mediated transport to move oxygeninto the salamander from the water.
C) facilitated diffusion of carbon dioxide fromthe salamander into the water.
D) simple diffusion of oxygen into thesalamander from the water.
E) active transport of carbon dioxide from thesalamander into the water.
2)Circulatory systems have the primary benefit of overcoming the shortcomings of
A) temperature differences between the lungs andthe active tissue.
B) the slow rate at which diffusion occursacross cells.
C) communication systems involving only thenervous system.
D) having to cushion animals from trauma.
E) fetal organisms maintaining an optimal bodytemperature.
4)The fluid that moves around in the circulatory system of a typical arthropod is
A) the digestive juices.
B) the intracellular fluid.
C) the blood plasma.
D) the cytosol.
E) the interstitial fluid.
5)Circulatory systems in molluscs
A) are open in all species of molluscs.
B) are closed in all species of molluscs.
C) are open in species of large-sized molluscsand are closed in species of small-sized molluscs.
D) are open in species of small-sized molluscsand are closed in species of large-sized molluscs.
E) are open or closed without regard to bodysize.
6)The circulatory system of bony fishes, rays, and sharks is similar to
A) that of birds, with a four-chambered heart.
B) the portal systems of mammals, where twocapillary beds occur sequentially, without passage of blood through a pumpingchamber.
C) that of reptiles, with one pumping chamberdriving blood flow to a gas-exchange organ, and a different pumping chamberdriving blood to the rest of the circulation.
7)A significant increase in the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding thecapillary beds of a human's lungs will cause
A) an increase in the amount of carbon dioxidemoving from the blood to the lungs.
B) an increase in the amount of oxygen movingfrom the lungs into the blood.
C) a decrease in the amount of oxygen movingfrom the lungs into the blood.
D) an increase of pressure that would cause thecapillary beds to burst.
8)Organisms with a circulating body fluid that is distinct from the fluid thatdirectly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have
A) an open circulatory system.
B) a closed circulatory system.
C) a gastrovascular cavity.
D) branched tracheae.
9)In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneouscirculation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?
10)The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs tobody tissues without first returning to the heart are the
11)To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surfaceand in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would needa(n)
A) open circulatory system.
C) lymphatic system.
D) two-chambered heart.
E) four-chambered heart.
12)A portal system is
A) an area connecting arterioles to venules.
B) a series of vessels that returns blood to theheart in an animal with an open circulatory system.
C) a space within or between organs where bloodis allowed to pool.
D) a slightly muscular vessel that has minimalpumping action in an organism with no heart.
E) a vessel or vessels connecting two capillarybeds.
13)Which of the following develops the greatest pressure on the blood in themammalian aorta?
A) systole of the left atrium
B) diastole of the right ventricle
C) systole of the left ventricle
D) diastole of the right atrium
E) diastole of the left atrium
14)Which of the following pairs of mammalian blood vessels has blood that is theleast similar in its gas content?
A) the pulmonary vein and the jugular vein
B) the veins from the right and left legs
C) the pulmonary artery and the vena cava
D) the pulmonary vein and the aorta
E) the inferior vena cava and the superior venacava
15)After several weeks of exercise, a human athlete's resting heart rate istypically lower than before because
A) the body needs less oxygen than before.
B) the body temperature has increased.
C) the stroke volume has increased.
D) the cardiac output has decreased.
E) the body produces less carbon dioxide thanbefore.
16)A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliveroxygen to a cell in the thumb. To travel from the artery in the arm to the leftventricle, this red blood cell must pass through
A) one capillary bed.
B) two capillary beds.
C) three capillary beds.
D) four capillary beds.
E) five capillary beds.
17)Which of the following is the correct sequence of blood flow in reptiles andmammals?
A) left ventricle → aorta → lungs → systemiccirculation
B) right ventricle → pulmonary vein →pulmocutaneous circulation
C) pulmonary vein → left atrium → left ventricle→ pulmonary circuit
D) vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle →pulmonary circuit
E) right atrium → pulmonary artery → left atrium→ ventricle
18)A patient with a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/minute, astroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/minute willhave a cardiac output of
A) 500 mL/minute.
B) 1,000 mL/minute.
C) 1,750 mL/minute.
D) 2,800 mL/minute.
E) 4,800 mL/minute.
19)Damage to the sinoatrial node in humans
A) is a major contributor to heart attacks.
B) would block conductance between the bundlebranches and the Purkinje fibers.
C) would have a negative effect on peripheralresistance.
D) would disrupt the rate and timing of cardiacmuscle contractions.
E) would have a direct effect on blood pressuremonitors in the aorta.
20)A stroke volume in the heart of 70 mL/cycle, with a pulse of 72 cycles perminute, results in a cardiac output of
A) 5 L/minute.
B) 504 mL/minute.
C) 0.5 L/minute.
D) 50 L/minute.
E) 500 L/minute.
21)The semilunar valves of the mammalian heart
A) are the route by which blood flows from theatria to the ventricles.
B) are found only on the right side of theheart.
C) are the attachment site where the pulmonaryveins empty into the heart.
D) prevent backflow of blood in the aorta andpulmonary arteries.
E) are at the places where the anterior andposterior venae cavae empty into the heart.
22)The material present in arterioles that is not present in capillaries is
A) fully oxygenated blood.
B) plasma in which carbon dioxide has beenadded.
C) a lining of endothelial cells.
D) circular smooth muscle cells that can alterthe size of the arterioles.
E) white blood cells and platelets.
23)The set of blood vessels with the slowest velocity of blood flow is
A) the arteries.
B) the arterioles.
C) the metarterioles.
D) the capillaries.
E) the veins.
24)The set of blood vessels with the lowest blood pressure driving flow is
A) the arteries.
B) the arterioles.
C) the metarterioles.
D) the capillaries.
E) the veins.
25)An increased concentration of nitric oxide within a vascular bed is associatedwith
C) narrowing of the arteries.
D) a reduction in blood flow in that region.
E) a decreased amount of blood in thecapillaries of that vascular bed.
26)Among the following choices, which organism likely has the highest systolicpressure?
27)Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary region are associated with
A) increased activity of the immune system.
B) a broken limb.
C) blood sugar that is abnormally high.
E) sodium depletion.
29)The blood pressure is lowest in the
E) venae cavae.
30)Fluid is filtered out of the bloodstream into the surrounding interstitialfluid at the arteriole end of systemic capillaries because
A) the osmotic pressure of the interstitialfluid is greater than that of the blood.
B) the hydrostatic pressure of the blood is lessthan that of the interstitial fluid.
C) the hydrostatic pressure of the blood isgreater than the osmotic pressure of the blood.
31)If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side ofcapillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then
A) hemoglobin will not release oxygen.
B) fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues.
C) the pH of the interstitial fluids willincrease.
D) most carbon dioxide will be bound tohemoglobin and carried away from tissues.
E) plasma proteins will escape through theendothelium of the capillaries.
32)What will be the long-term effect of blocking the lymphatic vessels associatedwith a capillary bed?
A) more fluid entering the venous capillaries
B) an increase in the blood pressure in thecapillary bed
C) the accumulation of more fluid in theinterstitial areas
D) fewer proteins leaking out of the blood toenter the interstitial fluid
E) the area of the blockage becoming abnormallysmall
33)A species that has a normal resting systolic blood pressure of >260 mm Hg islikely to be
A) an animal that is small and compact, withoutthe need to pump blood very far from the heart.
B) an animal with abundant lipid storage.
C) a species that has very wide diameter veins.
D) an animal that has a very long distancebetween its heart and its brain.
E) an animal that makes frequent, quick motions.
34)Dialysis patients, who will have blood withdrawn, dialyzed, then replaced, arealways weighed when they enter the facility and then weighed carefully againbefore they leave, because
A) even small changes in body weight may signifychanges in blood volume and therefore blood pressure.
B) many people who have dialysis are diabeticand must control their weight carefully.
C) dialysis removes blood proteins and theseweigh more than other blood components.
35)Large proteins such as albumin remain in capillaries rather than diffusing out,resulting in the
A) loss of osmotic pressure in the capillaries.
B) development of an osmotic pressure differenceacross capillary walls.
C) loss of fluid from capillaries.
D) increased diffusion of CO2.
E) increased diffusion of Hb.
36)Vasoconstriction in the gut is a likely response when an individual is
A) lying down after standing up.
B) standing up after lying down.
C) stressed and secreting stress hormones.
D) responding to increased blood pressure.
E) having an allergy attack with lots ofhistamine secretion.
37)The diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on the
A) measurement of fatty deposits on theendothelium of arteries.
B) measurement of the LDL/HDL ratio inperipheral blood.
C) percent of blood volume made up of platelets.
D) blood pressure being greater than 140 mm Hgsystolic and/or >90 diastolic.
E) number of leukocytes per mm3 of blood.
38)Among these choices, the biggest set that includes only those "cells"that lack nuclei is
B) platelets and erythrocytes.
C) platelets, erythrocytes, and basophils.
D) platelets, erythrocytes, basophils, andneutrophils.
E) platelets, erythrocytes, basophils,neutrophils, and monocytes.
39)In a healthy human, the typical life span of a red blood cell is
A) 24 hours.
B) one week.
C) one month.
D) four months.
E) 80 years or more.
40)The hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, and the organwhere this hormone is synthesized, are
A) growth hormone and pancreas, respectively.
B) erythropoietin and kidney, respectively.
C) cortisol and adrenal gland, respectively.
D) epinephrine and adrenal gland, respectively.
E) acetylcholine and bone marrow, respectively.
41)Dissolved proteins in human plasma include which of the following?
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and III only
D) II and III only
E) I, II, and III
42)The plasma proteins in humans
A) maintain the blood's osmotic pressure.
B) transport water-soluble lipids.
C) carry out gas exchange.
D) undergo aerobic metabolism.
E) transport oxygen.
43)Cyanide poisons mitochondria by blocking the final step in the electrontransport chain. Human red blood cells placed in an isotonic solutioncontaining cyanide are likely to
A) retain the normal cell shape, but themitochondria will be poisoned.
B) lyse as the cyanide concentration increasesinside the cell.
C) switch to anaerobic metabolism.
D) become unable to carry oxygen.
E) be unaffected.
44)Heart rate will increase in the presence of increased
A) low-density lipoproteins.
45)The production of red blood cells is stimulated by
A) low-density lipoproteins.
46)The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot is
47)A normal event in the process of blood clotting is the
A) production of erythropoietin.
B) conversion of fibrin to fibrinogen.
C) activation of prothrombin to thrombin.
D) increase in platelets.
E) synthesis of hemoglobin.
48)When the air in a testing chamber is specially mixed so that its oxygen contentis 10% and its overall air pressure is 400 mm Hg, then PO2 is
A) 400 mm Hg.
B) 82 mm Hg.
C) 40 mm Hg.
D) 21 mm Hg.
E) 4 mm Hg.
49)The sun shining on a tidal pool during a hot day heats the water. As some waterevaporates, the pool becomes saltier, causing
A) a decrease in its carbon dioxide content.
B) a decrease in its oxygen content.
C) an increase in its ability to sustain aerobicorganisms.
D) a decrease in the water's density.
E) a decrease in the movement of the watermolecules.
50)Sponges, cnidarians, and flatworms lack a specialized gas exchange surfacebecause
A) they are too large for a circulatory systemto operate well.
B) they live without need for oxygen.
C) they do not produce carbon dioxide.
D) countercurrent exchange mechanisms cannotfunction well in their living conditions.
E) nearly all of their cells are in directcontact with the external environment.
51)Flying insects do all of the following except
A) increase metabolism as much as 200-foldduring flight.
B) switch from diffusion of tracheal gases toactive transport during flight.
C) utilize high numbers of mitochondria inflight muscles.
D) produce water molecules from oxygen inmitochondria.
E) generate carbon dioxide from catabolism offuel molecules.
52)The epiglottis of a human covers the glottis when he or she is
53)In mammals, most gas exchange between the atmosphere and the pulmonary bloodoccurs in the
54)Gas exchange is more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than forterrestrial animals with lungs because
A) water is less dense than air.
B) water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume.
C) gills have less surface area than lungs.
D) gills allow only unidirectional transport.
E) gills allow water to flow in one direction.
55)Countercurrent exchange is evident in
A) the flow of water across the gills of a fishand that of blood within those gills.
B) the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of aninsect and that of air within its tracheae.
C) the flow of air within the primary bronchi ofa human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins.
56)Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize
B) blood pressure.
D) active transport.
57)Air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange
A) in their specialized external gills.
B) in their specialized internal gills.
C) in the alveoli of their lungs.
D) across the membranes of their cells.
E) across all parts of their thin cuticularexoskeleton.
58)An oil-water mixture works as an insecticidal spray against mosquitoes andother insects because it
A) coats their lungs.
B) blocks the openings into the tracheal system.
C) interferes with gas exchange across thecapillaries.
D) clogs their bronchi.
E) prevents gases from leaving the atmosphere.
59)Atmospheric pressure at sea level is equal to a column of 760 mm Hg. Oxygenmakes up 21% of the atmosphere by volume. The partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) in suchconditions is
A) 160 mm Hg.
B) 16 mm Hg.
60)Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer seriousrespiratory failure because of
A) the sudden change from the uterineenvironment to the air.
B) the overproduction of surfactants.
C) the incomplete development of the lungsurface.
D) lung collapse due to inadequate production ofsurfactant.
E) mutations in the genes involved in lungformation.
61)Of the following choices, impairment of a mammal's breathing cycle is mostlikely following neural damage in
A) the cerebrum and cerebellum.
B) the medulla oblongata and the pons.
C) the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex.
D) the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
E) the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe.
62)Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
A) the rib muscles and diaphragm contract,increasing the lung volume.
B) the volume of the alveoli increases as smoothmuscles contract.
C) gas flows from a region of lower pressure toa region of higher pressure.
D) pulmonary muscles contract and pull on theouter surface of the lungs.
E) a positive respiratory pressure iscreated when the diaphragm relaxes.
63)The exhalation of air from human lungs is driven by
A) a decrease in the volume of the thoraciccavity.
B) a decrease in the residual volume of thelungs.
C) the contraction of the diaphragm.
D) the closure of the epiglottis.
E) the expansion of the rib cage.
64)As a person goes from rest to full-effort exercise, there is an increase in the
A) tidal volume.
B) vital capacity.
C) residual volume.
D) total lung capacity.
E) All of the above would be different.
65)A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and aresidual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of
A) 1,450 mL.
B) 4,000 mL.
C) 4,450 mL.
D) 5,000 mL.
E) 5,450 mL.
66)During most daily activities, the human respiration rate is most closely linkedto the blood levels of
A) nitric acid.
D) carbon dioxide.
E) carbon monoxide.
67)Breathing is usually regulated by
A) erythropoietin levels in the blood.
B) the concentration of red blood cells.
C) hemoglobin levels in the blood.
D) CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level sensors.
E) the lungs and the larynx.
68)At an atmospheric pressure of 870 mm Hg of 21% oxygen, the partial pressure ofoxygen is
A) 100 mm Hg.
B) 127 mm Hg.
C) 151 mm Hg.
D) 182 mm Hg.
E) 219 mm Hg.
69)At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Oxygen gas is approximately21% of the total gases in the atmosphere, so the approximate partial pressureof oxygen is
A) 0.2 mm Hg.
B) 20.0 mm Hg.
C) 76.0 mm Hg.
D) 160.0 mm Hg.
E) 508.0 mm Hg.
70)At the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is 380 mm Hg. If theatmosphere is still composed of 21% oxygen, then the partial pressure of oxygenat this altitude is
A) 0 mm Hg.
B) 80 mm Hg.
C) 160 mm Hg.
D) 380 mm Hg.
E) 760 mm Hg.
71)Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid affect its pH. Thisenables the organism to sense a disturbance in gas levels as
A) the brain directly measures and monitorscarbon dioxide and causes breathing changes accordingly.
B) the medulla oblongata, which is in contactwith cerebrospinal fluid, monitors pH and uses this measure to control breathing.
C) the brain alters the pH of the cerebrospinalfluid to force the animal to retain more or less carbon dioxide.
72)An increase from pH 7.2 to pH 7.4 around hemoglobin causes
A) hemoglobin to release all bound oxygenmolecules.
B) an increase in the affinity of hemoglobin tobind oxygen molecules.
C) hemoglobin to denature.
D) an increase in the binding of H+ by hemoglobin.
E) hemoglobin to more readily give up its oxygenmolecules.
73)An "internal reservoir" of oxygen in rested muscle is found in oxygenmolecules bound to
B) bicarbonate ions.
C) carbonic acid.
D) actin and myosin.
74)Hemoglobin and hemocyanin
A) are both found within blood cells.
B) are both red in color.
C) are both freely dissolved in the plasma.
D) both transport oxygen.
E) are both found in mammals.
75)The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced bychanges in
A) the partial pressure of oxygen.
B) the partial pressure of carbon monoxide.
C) hemoglobin concentration.
76)Most of the carbon dioxide produced by humans is
A) converted to bicarbonate ions by an enzyme inred blood cells.
B) bound to hemoglobin.
C) transported in the erythrocytes as carbonicacid.
D) simply dissolved in the plasma.
E) bicarbonate ions bound to hemoglobin.
77)Hydrogen ions produced within human red blood cells are prevented fromsignificantly lowering plasma pH because they bind to
B) plasma proteins.
C) carbon dioxide.
D) carbonic acid.
E) plasma buffers.
78)The hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammalsin that
A) the oxygen dissociation curve for hemocyaninis linear.
B) hemocyanin carries appreciably more carbondioxide.
C) hemocyanin has protein coupled to copperrather than iron.
D) the protein of hemocyanin is not bound tometal.
E) hemocyanin includes cyanic acid.
79)In an animal species known for endurance running rather than fast sprinting,you would expect to find
A) a slower rate of oxygen consumption so thatits breathing will not have to be accelerated.
B) an increase of storage of oxygen in myoglobinof its muscles.
C) a relatively slow heart rate in order tolower oxygen consumption.
D) a lower pressure of oxygen in the alveoli.
E) a much higher rate of oxygen consumption forits size.
81)An anthropologist discovers the fossilized heart of an extinct animal. Theevidence indicates that the organism's heart was large, well-formed, and hadfour chambers, with no connection between the right and left sides. Areasonable conclusion supported by these observations is that the
A) animal had evolved from birds.
B) animal was endothermic and had a highmetabolic rate.
C) animal was most closely related to alligatorsand crocodiles.
83)Which of the following respiratory systems is not closely associated with ablood supply?
A) the lungs of a vertebrate
B) the gills of a fish
C) the tracheal system of an insect
D) the skin of an earthwormE) theparapodia of a polychaete worm
84)Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein drains first intothe
A) vena cava.
B) left atrium.
C) right atrium.
D) left ventricle.
E) right ventricle.
85)Pulse is a direct measure of
A) blood pressure.
B) stroke volume.
C) cardiac output.
D) heart rate.
E) breathing rate.
86)When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leadsto the urge to breathe?
A) rising O2
B) falling O2
C) rising CO2
D) falling CO2
E) rising CO2 and falling O2
87)One feature that amphibians and humans have in common is
A) the number of heart chambers.
B) the type of gas exchange tissues.
C) a complete separation of circuits forcirculation.
D) the number of circuits for circulation.
E) a low blood pressure in the systemic circuit.
88)If a molecule of CO2 released into the bloodin your left toe is exhaled from your nose, it must pass through all of thefollowing except
A) the pulmonary vein.
B) an alveolus.
C) the trachea.
D) the right atrium.
E) the right ventricle.
89)Compared with the interstitial fluid that bathes active muscle cells, bloodreaching these cells in arteries has a
C) greater bicarbonate concentration.
D) lower pH.
E) lower osmotic pressure.
90)Which of the following reactions prevails in red blood cells traveling throughalveolar capillaries? (Hb = hemoglobin)
A) Hb + 4 O2 → Hb(O2)4
B) Hb(O2)4 → Hb + 4 O2
C) CO2 + H2O → H2CO3
D) H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3-
E) Hb + 4 CO2 → Hb(CO2)4
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