In life threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by
deaminating amino acids
This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximeately one half of all nitrogenous
Which organ system does not excrete wastes
the cardiovascular system
which is not a function of the kidneys?
They release waste into the bloodstream
Human urine can have as much as ___ time the osmolarity of the blood plasma, which is why it is called hyertonic
Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system?
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of midback pain. X- rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalys. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likelt suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as
the fibrous capsue
A single lobe of a kidney is comprised of
one pyramid and the overlying cortex
A renal pyramid voids urine into
The minor calyx
Which of theses correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
Segmental a. > interlobar a. > arcuate a. > interlobular a.
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the
The average person has approximately ___ nephrons per kidney
Which of these correctly traces blood from the renal cortex to te renal vein?
Interlobular v. > arcuate v. > interlobar v. > renal v.
Blood plasma is filtered in
the renal corpuscle
Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
All of the following are composed of cubodial epithelium with the exception of
The thin segment of the nephron loop
Which are primarily responsible for maintain the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
The proximal convoluted tubule
In a healthy kidney, very little ___ is filtered by the glomerulus
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what?
The myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, ___ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet
Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mm Hg
20 mm Hg out
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the ___ to form angiotensin I
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the ___ of all the nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption
Proximal convoluted tubules
PCTs are responsible for absorbing all of the following except
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
Appearance of that solute in the urine
Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormones
Decreased urine volume
Aldosterone acts on
The distal convoluted tubule
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
preventing sodium loss in the urine
secretion of parapthyroid hormone
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbng ater while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
the body's water volume is high
Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation?
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ___ and is based on fluid flowing in ___ direction in two adjacent tubules
Sodium, the opposite
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is
To supply nutrients and oxygen to the renal medulla
Which of these induces rennin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the followin except
Which is the term for the pigment responsible for te color of urine
The minimum daily output of urine to meet the definition polyuria is
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of
Loop diuretics reduces body water contect by acting on
The countercurrent multiplier system
A hospital patient produces 4 mL min of urine with a urea concentration of 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of .4mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?
Which two substances are most useful for determining a patients glomerular fltration rate/
insulin and creatinine
Creatinine has a renal clearence of 140 mL/min due to the fact that
It is secreted by the renal tubules
Which of the following is not found in the ureter?
A renal calculus can be up to 2 cm wide, but even then, it would not obstruct
The urinary bladder
Which muscle is located in the bladder?
Which is not a portion of the urethra?
internal urethral sphincter
Micturition is another term for
The elimination of urine
Which of the following urinary tract disorders seems most likely to occur in someone who frequently participates in marathon runs?
Lithotripsy is a medical procedure used to treat
What is the most common urinary symptom of dibetes mellitus?
The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below
Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus
Professional horse jockeys may have a greated that average risk of nephroptosis
Diseases that affect the descending corticospinl tracts may limit inhibition of the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence
Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct
Diabetes is any metabolic disorder resulting in chronic polyuria
Parathyroid hormone increase phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitrio
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function
The thick segment of the nephron loop s impermeable to water