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change in allele frequencies in a population over generations
three main mechanisms causing allele frequency change (microevolution)
1. natural selection
2. genetic drift
3. gene flow
chance events that alter allele frequencies
transfer of allele between populations
differences among individuals in the composition of their genes or other DNA segments
average percentage of loci that are heterozygous
differences in the genetic composition of separate population
a graded change in a character along a geographic axis
group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring
all copies of every type of allele at every locus in all members of the population
gene pool of a population that is not evolving
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation
p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1
chance events cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next
genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that of the original population
severe drop in population
-sometimes caused by sudden environmental changes
transfer of alleles into or out of a population due to the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes
The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals.
when conditions favor individuals exhibiting one extreme of a phenotype range, thereby shifting a population's frequency curve for the phenotypic character in one direction
when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of a phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotypes
acts against both extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variants
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