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Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract except the
Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
Digestion refers to the
Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?
Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called
The digestive tract is also referred to as the
The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?
Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds.
The ________ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels.
Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the
Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the
Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the
The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the digestive epithelium is the
A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following except in the
A feature of the digestive tract wall that increases surface area available for absorption is the
The ________ supports all but 25 cm of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement.
What organ is primarily responsible for water absorption?
Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?
Which layer of the digestive tract has a layer of areolar tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?
Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called
What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
All of the following contain mucous cells in the epithelium except the
The oral mucosa has ________ epithelium.
The greater omentum is
A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity
1. lamina propria 4. digestive (mucous) epithelium
2. muscularis externa 5. serosa
3. submucosa 6. muscularis mucosae
The circumferential folds that encircle the digestive tract are known as
The epithelium lining the stomach, small intestine, and most of the large intestine is simple columnar; the epithelium in the oral cavity, esophagus, and pharynx is stratified squamous. Are these two statements true or false?
Which of these effects on digestion is NOT produced by the parasympathetic nervous system?
Someone who suffers peritonitis because of a puncture wound that pierced part of his or her stomach suffered damage to what structure?
Cells that are rapidly undergoing mitosis constantly repair and renew the lining of the pharynx and the esophagus, which is particularly vulnerable to abrasion associated with swallowing. Which of the following terms best describes this lining?
The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following except
________ pair(s) of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity.
The ________ gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar.
A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the
Functions of the tongue include all of the following except
The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called
The part of a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the
The root of a tooth is covered by
The crown of a tooth is covered by
________ are also known as canines.
A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would
Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from
In most cases, the mumps is a viral infection of the ________ glands.
The ________ salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth.
Which of the following is not a function of the tongue?
Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the
The space between the cheeks or lips and the teeth is called the
The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the
The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the
The uvula is located at the
________ are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping.
________ are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing.
________ are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding.
Within the oral cavity, both mechanical and chemical ________ begin.
The oral cavity performs (a) ________ prior to swallowing.
The dangling process that aids in keeping food out of the nasopharynx is known as the
A viral infection that often involves the parotid glands, which swell noticeably, is
The oral cavity is also known as the ________ cavity.
The first teeth to appear are the ________ teeth.
There are normally a total of ________ primary teeth.
The secondary dentition usually comprises ________ teeth.
The technical term for chewing is
The small, semisolid mass of food formed during mastication is called a
The lining of the cheeks is __________.
The joint between the tooth and bone is called the __________.
Mechanical digestion begins in the oral cavity; enzymatic digestion doesn't begin until food enters the stomach. Are these two statements true or false?
Which of the following is not a pharyngeal muscle involved in swallowing?
The epithelium lining the oropharynx is
Upon swallowing, food moves from the mouth directly into the
Which muscle(s) are responsible for pushing the bolus towards the esophagus?
The esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the GI tract. These include
During deglutition, which of the following phases is not present?
Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in
Which of the processes below occurs during the buccal phase of deglutition?
Which of these statements about the histology of the esophagus is FALSE?
Which of the following answers correctly lists the phases of the swallowing process before the bolus enters the stomach?
Functions of the stomach include all of the following except
Parietal cells secrete
Chief cells secrete
G cells of the stomach secrete
To which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect?
The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the
The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food and secretions is the
The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the
The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called
The stomach secretes the hormone ghrelin which functions to
Gastric pits are
The enzyme pepsin digests
An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that coagulates milk proteins is
The pylorus empties into the
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term gastrin?
During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion,
The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the
All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion except that it
Distension of the gastric wall leads to secretion of histamines from the lamina propria. This is an example of ________ response.
The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is
Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result, you would expect Mary to be at risk for
All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach except that it
The term "alkaline tide" implies that the pH of the blood in gastric veins is
The stomach is able to distend a great deal as it receives food because of the presence of
The stomach is different from other digestive organs in that it
1. intestinal phase 4. prepares stomach for arrival of food
2. gastric phase 5. stomach empties and decreases secretions
3. cephalic phase 6. stomach secretes juice and mixes food into chyme
1. H2CO3 dissociates.
2. Chloride ion combines with H+ in the gastric lumen.
3. Water and CO2 combine to form carbonic acid.
4. H+ and bicarbonate ion are transported into the gastric lumen.
5. Cl- diffuses into the gastric lumen.
A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in
After food and gastric juices combine, the gastric contents are referred to as
Which of these is NOT a function of the stomach?
The cells in the gastric mucosa near the openings of the gastric pits largely specialize in secreting __________.
An ulcerated stomach lining often repairs itself once the source of inflammation has been eliminated. How is this possible?
Which of the following hypotheses would address the question of why salivary amylase and lingual lipase do not work in the stomach?
Circular folds and intestinal villi
Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic of the
The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the
The villi are most developed in the
Peyer's patches are characteristic of the
Which of the following enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?
Brunner glands are characteristic of the
The middle segment of the small intestine is the
The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the
Circular folds are
An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucin production by the submucosal duodenal glands is
The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is
An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is
An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is
An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is
The human liver is composed of ________ lobe(s).
The fusion of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the
In the center of a liver lobule there is a
The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of
Each of the following is a function of the liver except
The basic functional units of the liver are the
________ are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of irregular plates converging toward a central vein.
The Kupffer cells of the liver
The pancreas produces
The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the
Bile is stored in the
A proenzyme secreted by the pancreas is
A surgical procedure to promote rapid weight loss is removal of most of the
Which of the following has an association with the fetal umbilical vein?
Which of the following is not a component of the portal triad found at the edges of a liver lobule?
The part of the small intestine most likely to develop an ulcer from exposure to gastric juice is the
In response to the arrival of acidic chyme in the duodenum, the
Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of
The essential functions of the liver include
1. pepsinogen 4. enterokinase
2. trypsinogen 5. hydrochloric acid
3. procarboxypeptidase 6. trypsin
A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin would affect
An obstruction of the common bile duct often results in
If the pancreatic duct was obstructed, you would expect to see elevated blood levels of
Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?
In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid
Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs
Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted by the small intestine each day.
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?
Hydrochloric acid from the stomach is neutralized in the small intestine by
Which digestive juice contains enzymes that breakdown carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins?
Salivation is controlled almost entirely by the nervous system. Which of the following stimuli would inhibit salivation?
In response to a steak dinner, certain secretions are needed to aid digestion. What cells in the pancreas would provide these secretions?
An increase in HCl (hydrochloric acid) secretion in the duodenum would stimulate which hormone that would help to counteract the effects of HCl?
The secretion in the large intestine consists of which of the following?
During which phase in the control of the digestive system would bicarbonate and bile be stimulated?
Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter released by which fibers?
Enteric interneurons that are inhibitory to smooth muscle use which of the following neurotransmitters?
Which of the following intestinal hormones stimulates bile from the gall bladder?
Which of the following GI hormones promotes a pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate ions?
Bile salts aid in the digestion of fats by ________ large fat droplets.
The ________ duct is formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct.
Your patient with liver failure has a firm, rounded abdomen due to accumulation of fluid. This is known clinically as
Identify the incorrect pairing.
The middle segment of the small intestine is called the
Pancreatic juice enters the small intestine at the
The pancreas has endocrine cells that produce hormones and ________ cells that produce digestive enzymes.
The gastroileal reflex
Most chemical digestion and nutrient absorption is performed in the __________.
To increase surface area for absorption, the small intestine has many folds and protrusions. Which of these is NOT one of them?
Which of these gut hormones and actions are MISMATCHED?
Inflammation of digestive organs is a common occurrence. Which of the following inflammatory diseases is not associated with the digestive system?
A tell-tale sign of the constant fight against infections in the digestive system is the presence of large quantities of defensive cells. Which of the following types of cell have such protective functions?
The pancreas plays an important role in digestion by secreting digestive enzymes, such as proteolytic enzymes. In pancreatitis, these enzymes may begin digesting pancreatic exocrine cells in a process known as autolysis. What prevents autolysis in a healthy pancreas?
Cirrhosis is a type of liver disease in which lobules turn fibrous and thus nonfunctioning. Which of the following functions is not impaired by cirrhosis?
Sympathetic activation inhibits duodenal gland activity. Thus, the duodenal lining is unprepared for the arrival of chyme. From the choices below, what could cause this sympathetic response and what could be the consequences to the digestive system?
Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called
Functions of the large intestine include
At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the
Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the
The taenia coli are
At the splenic flexure, the colon becomes the
The pouchlike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the
A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the
Movements unique to the large intestine are ________ movements.
The defecation reflex involves
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?
In the large intestine the wall has three strips of longitudinal muscle called the
The clinical term for the gas produced by bacteria in the colon as they metabolize indigestible carbohydrates is called
The nasogastric tube will be inserted through the nose, travel through the pharynx and will ultimately end in the stomach. After passing through the pharynx, what long muscular passageway will the NG tube pass through to get to the stomach?
What is the name of the structure that connects the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine?
The purpose of the fecal transplant is to get healthy bacteria inside the digestive tract so they can colonize the large intestine. After the fecal transplant is deposited into the stomach, it must pass through the small intestine before reaching its target. What is the name of the last part of the small intestine before it connects to the large intestine?
Vitamins are organic molecules that are cofactors in many metabolic pathways. One of the important functions of the bacteria in the large intestine is to generate three vitamins: biotin and B12, which are both water-soluble, and a third fat-soluble vitamin that is especially important in blood clotting. What is the fat-soluble vitamin produced by the bacteria in the colon?
Arrange the regions of the large intestine in the correct anatomical sequence.
A colonoscopy is a common diagnostic tool to check for colorectal cancer. Sometimes an investigation of the distal segment of the colon is all that is needed. What is the name of this distal segment of the colon?
Which of the following would NOT be a cause of the large intestine absorbing too little water?
Enzymatic breakdown of which of the following compounds doesn’t begin until it reaches the stomach?
Which of the following enzymes is important for breaking down protein?
Which of the following enzymes is important for the digestion of fat?
In the small intestine, which of the following enzymes breaks down maltose?
The breakdown products of which of the following are absorbed into lacteals?
The enzyme amylase digests
An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the
If digestion of a carbohydrate results in equal amounts of glucose and galactose, this carbohydrate is probably
Which of the following is false concerning the process known as cotransport?
Products of fat digestion are transported initially by
The absorption of some sugars in the small intestine involves
Absorption of glucose from the gut lumen depends on
Which of the following is true regarding lactose intolerance?
The enzyme that digests starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides is
Maltose is hydrolyzed into monosaccharides by the enzyme
Sucrose is hydrolyzed by sucrase into glucose and
People who lack the enzyme ________ often experience GI upset after consuming milk and other dairy products.
Complexes of fatty acids, monoglycerides, and bile salts are called
During digestion of triglycerides, fatty acids enter the intestinal mucosa by diffusion; then, they are resynthesized into triglycerides. Which of the following statements correctly describes what happens next?
The enzyme alpha-amylase that digests polysaccharides is secreted by the __________.
Which of these statements about water balance in the digestive system is true?
Which of the following vitamins relies on intrinsic factor for its diffusion across the digestive epithelium?
Bile salts improve chemical digestion by emulsifying the __________ into tiny emulsion droplets called __________.
As a person ages, the division rate of epithelial stem cells declines, making the likelihood of peptic ulcers higher. Why is this the case?
Components of the lymphoid system that are integrated within the digestive system include all EXCEPT the __________.
In thinking about system integration, chose the organ system that does NOT have a direct interaction with the digestive system.
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