Chapter 25: Bacteria & Archae
- Rutgers University - New Brunswick/Piscataway
- Biology 101
- Chapter 25: Bacteria & Archae
Last Modified: 2011-11-05
Related Textbooks:Biology (Available Titles Coursemate)
- DNA in nucleoid area, cytoplasm has ribosomes, storage granules for glycogen, lipid, phosphate compounds, enzymes
- respiration + photosynthesis associated w/ plasma membrane
- Rod shaped
- called cocci (sing. coccus)
- occur singly, in groups of 2 = diplococci, long chains = streptococci, or clumps = staphylococci
- called baccilli (sing. baccillus)
- occur as single rods or as long chains of rods
Bacterial Cell Walls
Positive --> retain crystal violet stain, meaning the the peptidoglycan wall is thick because of sugar
negative --> do not stain. It has 2 layers, thin peptidoglycan layer and thick outer membrane that contains polysaccharides bonded to lipids
- a polysaccharide or protein that surrounds cell walls to protect the cell from phagocytosis (ex. w/o a capsule s. pneumoniae can't cause pneumonia
- they are used to attach to surfaces like rocks, plant roots, human teeth (dental plaque)
- use fimbriae and pili to attach to cell surface/each other
Placement + number differ by species
Basal body goes through the cell membrane to anchor the flagella to the body, moves like a motor
Hook is the filament of flagella, protein uses ATP to move it
- binary fission
- most have it in single DNA molecule
- have 1+ plasmids
Dormant extremely durable cells that bacteria form when in unfavorable conditions
- bacteria have peptidoglycan, archae do not
- fatty acids linked to glycerol by ester linkages in bacterial plasma membrane, archae have no fatty acids in plasma membrane. they have branched chained hydrocarbons bonded to glycerol by ether linkage
- unique sequences of SSU rRNA
- reduce nitrogen to ammonia, then use it to produce organic compounds
- Proteobacteria (gram - negative)
- Cyanobacteria " "
- Chlamydia " "
- Spirochetes " "
- Gram positive bacteria
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