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The urinary system does all of the following except
A glomerulus is
How is the kidney involved with normal bone ossification and development?
Urine is eliminated through the
The urinary system regulates blood volume and pressure by
Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by
Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system except the
Urine is temporarily stored in the
Which of the following activities is not related to kidney function?
All of the following processes are functions of the urinary system EXCEPT __________.
Chronic and acute renal failure impairs all of the functions carried out by the kidneys and, as a consequence, the functions of most other body systems. Which of the following renal functions is matched incorrectly?
Some patients with kidney failure regularly undergo a procedure called hemodialysis to cleanse their blood. This procedure thus effectively replaces which of the following kidney components.
Urine passes, in the order given
All of the following are true of the kidneys except that they are
The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the
The renal sinus is
The outermost layer of the kidney is the
The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the
Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called
Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the
The left kidney lies ________ to the right kidney.
The position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity is stabilized by
The condition called ________ is especially dangerous because the ureters or renal blood vessels can become twisted or kinked during movement.
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?
The ________ delivers urine to a minor calyx.
Typical renal blood flow is about ________ ml/min under resting conditions.
In the renal corpuscle, the glomerular epithelium is a layer of specialized cells called
What is the proper order for the structures of the renal corpuscle through which a substance passes during filtration?
1. filtration slit (slit pore)
2. capsular space
3. dense layer
4. capillary endothelium
Capillaries that surround the proximal convoluted tubules are
The renal veins drain into the
________ is/are an inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that affects the filtration mechanism of the kidneys.
Glomerulonephritis may occur as a consequence of an infection with the bacterium
________ is an inherited abnormality that affects the development and structure of kidney tubules.
Which region of the kidney is the most superficial?
Where does filtration of the blood occur within the kidneys?
Where are the renal columns located?
Which structure is found separating the renal pyramids?
Identify the correct direction of urine flow from formation to exiting the kidney.
Name the strong transparent covering that encases the kidney.
Where does the ureter penetrate the kidney?
Which of the following regions of the kidney is in contact with the fibrous capsule?
A major calyx is a component of which of the following anatomical structures?
Where does the kidney filter the blood?
What is the function of the renal pelvis?
Renal columns are
The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the
Major calyces are
Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the
The region known as the macula densa is part of
The cells of the macula densa and the juxtaglomerular cells form the
You have been diagnosed with lupus erythematosus, a very severe autoimmune disorder with a wide variety of associated organ-related problems. Your doctor is particularly worried about how this will affect your kidney function. He says that you are susceptible to ________ because of the lupus.
The filtration of plasma takes place in the
Filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the
The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?
The efferent arteriole of a nephron divides to form a network of capillaries within the cortex called the ________ capillaries.
The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the
The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is
1. afferent arteriole 2. arcuate artery
3. interlobar artery 4. renal artery
5. glomerulus 6. cortical radiate artery
7. efferent arteriole 8. peritubular capillary
The process of filtration occurs at the
The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of which three layers?
The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of
The majority of glomeruli are located in the ________ of the kidney.
Which of the following components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?
Renal blood flow is about
Eighty percent of nephrons in the human kidney are located in the ________ and have short nephron loops.
Nephrons located close to the medulla with long nephron loops are called ________ nephrons.
The ________ is a capillary bed that parallels the nephron loop (loop of Henle).
The medial indentation on the exterior of the kidney where the ureter exits is called the __________.
Blood is supplied to a nephron by its __________.
The urinary filtrate first enters __________.
The macula densa forms part of the __________.
During an analysis of renal blood flow, clinicians look for an administered compound called para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). In a healthy kidney, this compound is filtered by the nephrons and ends up in urine. In which part of the nephron does filtration occur?
During filtration, anything that is small enough to pass through all three layers of the filtration membrane will become part of the filtrate. Sometimes, the least porous layer of this membrane becomes clogged and then glomerulonephritis may occur. What is the name of the most porous layer of the filtration membrane?
The step in kidney function in which fluid is forced out of the blood includes moving fluid __________.
Which of the following is not a normal constituent of urine?
The renal threshold for glucose is approximately ________ mg/dl.
Substances larger than ________ are normally not allowed to pass through the filtration membrane.
Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following except
The concentration at which all of the carriers for a given substance are saturated is the
The ________ is the plasma concentration at which a specific compound will begin appearing in the urine.
Which of these is NOT an organic waste found in urine?
Which of these nephron transport processes does NOT show saturation at high solute values?
The main site for water reabsorption along the nephron is the __________.
Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?
If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?
Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.
Which of the choices below best describes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
Which of the following best describes the passive force that creates filtrate?
What is the primary regulatory mechanism that maintains glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
Which of the following GFR-regulating mechanisms is initiated by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?
The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?
In the event of a severe increase in systemic blood pressure, what mechanism would increase GFR?
Which of the choices below best describes the autonomic mechanism for regulating GFR?
What enzyme is released by the juxtaglomerular complex to regulate GFR?
The process of filtration is driven mainly by
Approximately ________ liters of glomerular filtrate enter glomerular capsules each day.
Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures.
1. blood hydrostatic pressure 2. capsular hydrostatic pressure 3. capsular colloid osmotic pressure
4. blood colloid osmotic pressure 5. urinary bladder hydrostatic pressure
Which of the following formulas will allow you to calculate correctly the net filtration pressure (FP)? (Hint: CsHP is capsular hydrostatic pressure.)
Measurement of the functions of a nephron reveals a glomerular capillary pressure of 69 mm Hg, and a pressure in the capsular space of 15 mm Hg. Assuming that the colloid osmotic pressure is 30 mm Hg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net filtration pressure in this case?
If heavy exercise reduces blood flow to the kidneys, which of the following might occur?
One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to
Calculate filtration pressure (FP) in a nephron with a glomerular hydrostatic pressure of 55 mm Hg, a blood colloid osmotic pressure of 25 mm Hg, and a capsular hydrostatic pressure of 15 mm Hg.
Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) in the glomerulus is generated by
The main force that causes filtration in a nephron is
The filtration pressure at the glomerulus is equal to
The amount of filtrate produced by the kidneys each minute is called the
The ________ test is often used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate.
The main force(s) opposing glomerular filtration is (are) __________.
Which of these effects is NOT produced by sympathetic activation?
Besides being very painful, a blockage in a ureter due to kidney stones or external pressure is serious because it leads to an increase in capsular hydrostatic pressure. What is the consequence of this increase in pressure?
One of the organic substances not normally excreted by the kidney is __________.
Sheila has been exercising at peak performance for about 60 minutes. She did not hydrate as effectively as she should have and as a result, her urine is deep yellow and low in volume. Which of the following is the most likely mechanism affecting this?
A decrease in blood albumin level will cause a decrease in blood colloid osmotic pressure. This will lead to a rise in the net glomerular filtration pressure. Are these two statements true or false?
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following pathways?
During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubule, what causes water to osmose from the lumen into the interstitial space?
The decreased intracellular concentration of sodium in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?
Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?
What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?
Which of the following statements about aldosterone is NOT correct?
Which of the following statements about ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is correct?
What is the osmolarity of the filtrate at the end of the proximal tubule?
In overhydration, what would be the levels of ADH (high, normal, or low) and what would be the osmolarity of the urine?
In severe dehydration or blood loss, what would be the levels of ADH and what would be the urine flow rate?
The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the functions of the
Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following except
Reabsorption of filtered glucose from the lumen in the PCT is largely by means of
Secretion of hydrogen ion by the PCT is by the process of
Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by
The mechanism for producing a concentrated urine involves
The thick ascending limb of the nephron loop (loop of Henle) is almost impermeable to water, but reabsorbs sodium, potassium, and chloride ions from the filtrate.
A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is may be due to
If a urine sample is distinctly yellow in color, which of the following will be true?
A drug that inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) may lead to
Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include
Which of the following substances undergo tubular secretion?
Which of the following substances are not normally found in the filtrate?
Filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule normally contains
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?
When the level of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) decreases,
Agents that increase urine excretion are known as
As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?
In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce
The process of ________ involves a carrier protein that can transport a molecule across the cell membrane down its concentration gradient.
A transport mechanism that can move a substance against a concentration gradient by using cellular energy is
Basically, what occurs in the countercurrent multiplier process?
In the process of ________, two substances are moved across a cell membrane in the same direction without directly using cellular energy. One of the substances can be moved against a concentration gradient by this process.
Why might a person take diuretics?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the urinary system?
Mike’s injury caused his ureter to be torn away at the hilum of the kidney. What internal kidney structures funnel the urine into the renal pelvis of the ureter?
The first step in the formation of urine is the generation of filtrate from the blood plasma by filtration. In what part of the nephron does the formation of filtrate occur?
There are multiple pressures involved in controlling glomerular filtration and the formation of filtrate. Which is the pressure that opposes the formation of filtrate by drawing water out of the filtrate and back into the plasma?
What triggers the movement of water out of the descending limb?
What process provides ammonia for buffering the pH of tubular fluid?
Which of the following activities occurs at the proximal convoluted tubule?
Which of these hormones causes the kidney to increase the body's content of sodium?
Which of these is NOT a property of countercurrent multiplication?
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) causes __________.
The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.
The detrusor muscle
The inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is
During the micturition reflex,
The area of the urinary bladder bounded by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra is called the
Insoluble deposits that form within the urinary tract from calcium salts, magnesium salts, or uric acid are called kidney stones or renal
You complain to the doctor about constant pain and discomfort in the low back area. What test might logically be recommended?
Which of the following statements is false regarding micturition?
Which of these statements about the detrusor muscle is FALSE?
Which of these is NOT an aspect of the micturition reflex arc?
What type of epithelium is found lining the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the proximal portion of the urethra?
The ureters extend from the __________.
If the micturition reflex is primarily controlled by parasympathetic innervation, then how is it that you have voluntary control of when you choose to urinate?
Changes that occur in the urinary system with aging include all of the following except
Your doctor has diagnosed you with prostatitis, an inflammation and swelling involving the prostate gland. One of your primary symptoms is
Which of these age-related changes most increases the risk of dehydration?
Each of the following organ systems excretes wastes to some degree except the ________ system.
Which of these is NOT considered to be part of the excretory system?
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