19th century American progressive political activist and a muckraking journalist.
HI= He is best remembered for his exposés of the Standard Oil Company.
Danish American social reformer, muckraking journalist and social documentary photographer.
HI= He is known for his dedication to using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the impoverished in New York City, which was the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography.
American journalist, lecturer, and political philosopher.
HI= one of the most famous practitioners of the journalistic style called muckraking.
American novelist and journalist.
HI= He pioneered the naturalist school and is known for portraying characters whose value lies not in their moral code, but in their persistence against all obstacles, and literary situations that more closely resemble studies of nature than tales of choice and agency.
American teacher, author and journalist.
HI= She was known as one of the leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era, work known in modern times as "investigative journalism".
Robert M. La Follette
American politician who served as a U.S. Congressman, the 20th Governor of Wisconsin, and Republican Senator from Wisconsin.
HI= He is best remembered as a proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations.
Social and political reformer from Philadelphia.
HI= Her work against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, eight-hour workdays, and children's rightsis widely regarded today.
Pulitzer Prize-winning American author who wrote over 90 books in many genres.
HI= He achieved popularity in the first half of the 20th century, acquiring particular fame for his 1906 muckraking novel The Jungle.
Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States.
HI= His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions.
Eugene V. Debs
American union leader, one of the founding members of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World.
HI= Several times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
Means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote on a proposed statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or ordinance.
HI= To simply oblige the executive or legislative bodies to consider the subject by submitting it to the order of the day. It is a form of direct democracy.
Procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office through a direct vote.
HI= Initiated when sufficient voters sign a petition, recall has a history dating back to the ancient Athenian democracy.
Direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal.
HI= This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy.
Scientific study of the nature and status of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction.
HI= It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on sciences, economics, and the practice of natural resource management.
Professional endeavor that seeks to preserve, conserve and protect buildings, objects, landscapes or other artifacts of historic significance.
"Rules of Reason"
Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I.
HI= The key members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire.
A reporter or writer who investigates and publishes truthful reports involving a host of social issues, broadly including crime and corruption and often involving elected officials, political leaders and influential members of business and industry.
HI= The term is closely associated with a number of important writers who emerged in the 1890s through the 1930s, a period roughly concurrent with the Progressive Era in the United States.
Established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote. It also alters the procedure for filling vacancies in the Senate, to be consistent with the method of election.
HI= It was adopted on April 8, 1913.
Established Prohibition in the United States. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919. It was repealed by the Twenty-first Amendment in 1933, the only instance of an amendment's repeal.
HI= The Eighteenth Amendment was also unique in setting a time delay before it would take effect following ratification and in setting a time limit for its ratification by the states.
United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
HI= The Elkins Act authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates. The railroad companies were not permitted to offer rebates.
United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers.
HI= In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized bookkeeping systems. For any railroad that resisted, the ICC's conditions would remain in effect until the outcome of legislation said otherwise.
Northern Securities Case
Important United States railroad trust formed in 1902. The company controlled most major rail lines. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt; one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor.
Muller V. Oregon
Landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it justifies both sex discrimination and usage of labor laws during the time period.
HI= The case upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health.
Lochner V. New York
landmark United States Supreme Court case that held a "liberty of contract" was implicit in the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
HI= The case involved a New York law that limited the number of hours that a baker could work each day to ten, and limited the number of hours that a baker could work each week to 60.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, and resulted in the fourth highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history.
HI= The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers, most of them women, who either died from the fire or jumped from the fatal height.
Pure Food and Drug Act
United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines.
HI= The Act arose due to public education and exposés from Muckrakers such as Upton Sinclair and Samuel Hopkins Adams, social activist Florence Kelley, researcher Harvey W. Wiley, and President Theodore Roosevelt.
United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of 20 states in the American West.
Oldest and largest grassroots environmental organization in the United States.
HI= It was founded on May 28, 1892 in San Francisco, California by the well-known conservationist and preservationist John Muir, who became its first president.
United States National Park spanning eastern portions of Tuolumne, Mariposa and Madera counties in east central California, United States.
HI= Designated a World Heritage Site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its spectacular granite cliffs, waterfalls, clear streams, Giant Sequoia groves, and biological diversity.
Effort of the United States to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries.
HI= The term was originally coined by President Theodore Roosevelt. It was also used in Liberia, where American loans were given in 1913.
Theodore Roosevelt's Progressive political philosophy during the 1912 election.
HI= He made the case for what he called the New Nationalism in a speech in Osawatomie, Kansas, on August 31, 1910. The central issue he argued was government protection of human welfare and property rights.
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