The relationship between scores achieved by people when they complete two versions of a test that are judged to be equivalent
A sampling of ongoing cognitions, feelings, and overt behavior in their situational context.
BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent)
The signal detected by functional MRI studies of the brain; measures blood flow and thus neural activity in particular regions.
An approach to assessment in which a person is or is not a member of a discrete grouping.
The co-occurrence of two disorders, as when a person has depression and social phobia.
The extent to which previously undiscovered features are found among patients with the same diagnosis
The extent to which scores or ratings on an assessment instrument relate to other variables or behaviors according to some theory or hypothesis.
The extent to which a measure adequately samples the domain of interest
The extent to which a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure.
CT or CAT scan
Refers to computerized axial tomography, a method of diagnosis in which X-rays are taken from different angles and then analyzed by computer to produce a representation of the part of the body in the cross section.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association.
The determination that the set of symptoms or problems of a patient indicates a particular disorder.
dimensional diagnostic system
An approach to assessment in which a person is placed on a continuum.
ecological momentary assessment (EMA)
Form of self-observation involving collection of data in real time (e.g., diaries) regarding thoughts, moods, and stressors.
A recording of the electrical activity of the heart, made with an electrocardiograph
A recording of the minute electrical activity of the sweat glands on the skin, allowing inference on an emotional state.
A graphic recording of electrical activity of the brain, usually of the cerebral cortex, but sometimes of lower areas.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Modification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that allows researchers to take pictures of the brain so quickly that metabolic changes can be measured, resulting in a picture of the brain at work rather than of its structure alone.
A standardized means of assessing a person's current mental ability, for example the Stanford-Binet test or the Weschler Adult Intellegence Scale.
internal consistency reliability
The degree to which different items of an assessment are related to one another.
The relationship between the judgments that at least two raters make independently about a phenomenon
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Technique for measuring the structure of the brain. The person is placed inside a large circular magnet causing hydrogen atoms to move; the return of the atoms to their original positions is translated into pictures of brain tissue.
A chemical breakdown product of an endogenous molecule, such as a neurotransmitter, or of an exogenous drug; used to gauge current or recent level of its precursor.
A lengthy personality inventory that identifies individuals with states such as anxiety, depression, masculinity-femininity, and paranoia, through their true-false replies to groups of statements.
multiaxial classification system
Classification having several dimensions, all of which are employed in categorizing; DSM-IV-TR is an example.
A physician who specializes in medical diseases that affect the nervous system, such as muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, or Alzheimer's disease.
Psychological tests, such as the Luria-Nebraska, that can detect impairment in different parts of the brain.
A psychologist who studies how brain dysfunction affects cognition, emotion, and behavior.
A self-report questionnaire comprised of statements assessing habitual behavioral and affective tendencies.
Computer-generated picture of the living brain, created by analysis of emissions from radioactive isotopes injected into the bloodstream
The extent to which predictions can be made about the future behavior of patients with the same diagnosis
The notion that standard but highly unstructured stimuli, as found in the Rorschach assessment's series of inkblots, are necessary to bypass defenses in order to reveal unconscious motives and conflicts.
A psychological assessment device, such as the Rorschach series of inkblots, employing a set of standard but vague stimuli, on the assumption that unstructured material will allow unconscious motivations and fears to be uncovered.
Standardized procedures designed to measure performance on a particular task or to assess personality.
The discipline concerned with the bodily changes that accompany psychological events.
The phenomenon wherein behavior changes because it is being observed
The extent to which a test, measurement, or classification system produces the same scientific observation each time it is applied.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective test in which the examinee is instructed to interpret a series of 10 inkblots reproduced on cards.
In behavioral assessment, a procedure whereby the individual observes and reports certain aspects of his or her own behavior, thoughts, or emotions.
The process of constructing a normed assessment procedure that meets the various psychometric criteria for reliability and validity.
State of an organism subjected to a stressor; can take the form of increased autonomic activity and in the long term can cause a breakdown of an organ or development of a mental disorder.
An interview in which the questions are set out in a prescribed fashion for the interviewer; assists professionals in making diagnostic decisions based on standardized criteria.
The relationship between the scores that a person achieves when he or she takes the same test twice
Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
A projective test consisting of black-and-white pictures, each depicting a potentially emotion-laden situation, about each of which the examinee is instructed to make up a story.
In research, includes internal, the extent to which results can be confidently attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable, and external, the extent to which results can be generalized to other populations and settings.
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