Chapter 3 Free Response Questions 1. Nitrogen is crucial for sustaining life in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. a). Draw a fully labeled diagram of the nitrogen cycle. (4 points) 3 points for correctly identifying all the components of the nitrogen cycle AND showing the proper connections. 1 point for placing arrows in the direction of energy flow b). Describe the following steps in the nitrogen cycle: Nitrogen fixation (1 point) Ammonification (1 point) Nitrification (1 point) Denitrification (1 point) c). Describe one reason why nitrogen is crucial for sustaining life on Earth. (1 point) d). Describe one way that the nitrogen cycle can be disrupted by human activities. (1 point) 2. After reading the following excerpt from an article about the interrelationships among organisms in an oak forest, answer parts a, b, and c, which follow. a). Diagram a food web based on the interrelationships of the organisms identified in the excerpt. (5 points) 3 points for correctly identifying the five components of the food web AND showing the proper connections. 1 point for placing arrows in the direction of energy flow 1 point for labeling trophic levels b). Design a controlled experiment that tests the relationship between acorn production and gypsy moth population. Include the hypothesis that the experiment tests. (5 points) 1 point for the hypothesis IF the hypothesis is connected to the question AND the experiment. It must be stated in a hypothesis format (i.e., can?t just restate the question) and you must specify the direction of change (i.e., increasing or decreasing). Student may also state their hypothesis as a NULL hypothesis. 2 points for experiment which clearly indicates measurement over a reasonable amount of time (not acceptable: days or a few months; for a controlled experiment at least one full cycle of the oak trees is needed) 1 point for a clear indication of a control 1 point for elaboration and demonstration of in-depth knowledge of the subject matter. 3. Ecosystems are composed of abiotic and biotic components. The biotic components play significant roles in energy flow and matter recycling. While the survival of individual organisms within an ecosystem is dependent on the flow of energy and matter through the body of the organism, the survival of the entire ecosystem is dependent on the flow of energy and matter within the system. a). Given a generic ecosystem, explain the living components of an ecosystem and the roles they play with regard to matter recycling. (4 points) 1 point for describing producers 1 point for describing consumers (include primary, secondary, and tertiary) 1 point for describing decomposers 1 point for describing detritivores b). What is the role(s) of the abiotic components in matter recycling? (3 points) 1 point for elaborating in depth on the importance of various abiotic factors for matter recycling (i.e., water, oxygen, minerals, solar energy and etc.) 1 point for describing the relationship between abiotic factors and distribution range 1 point for describing the relationship between abiotic factors and optimal range c). Explain the flow of energy within this system you have created. (3 points) 1 point for elaborating on the flow of energy through the various trophic levels 1 point for including 2nd law of thermodynamics and 10% energy rule in explanation 1 point for describing carbohydrate and organic molecule metabolism among the trophic levels (i.e. photosynthesis, aerobic respiration, and anaerobic respiration) 4. Developed countries have steadily become the largest consumers of resources and at the same time have been wasting more resources than they actually need. This has led to an imbalance of resource utilization among the countries of the world. The poor countries underconsume while the prosperous overconsume. This has led to a growing condition known as Affluenza. a). Explain Affluenza. (5 points) 2 points for defining Affluenza 3 points for defining where it exists (i.e., name specific developed and developing countries, include socioeconomic examples, and specify what is influencing the problem) b). How can Affluenza be implicated in having both negative and positive effects on the environment? (5 points) 2 points for explaining negative impact 2 points for explaining positive impact 1 point for elaboration and demonstration of in-depth knowledge of the subject matter.
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