Human DevelopmentChapter 3 9408 Genotypes and Phenotypes Genotype: an individual?s genetic heritage, the actual genetic material. Blueprint for potential characteristics. Phenotype: the way an individual?s genotype is expressed in observable and measurable characteristics. Physical traits; Psychological characteristics. For each genotype, a range of phenotypes can be expressed. Reaction Range The range of possible phenotypes for each genotype. Importance of an environment?s restrictiveness or richness. HeredityEnvironment Correlation Individual?s genes influence the types of environments to which they are exposed. Sandra Scarr described 3 ways that heredity and environment are related: Passively Evocatively Actively Passive GenotypeEnvironment Correlations Occur when biological parents provide a rearing environment that matches their own genetic tendencies and their child inherits their genetic tendencies. Example: Parents who are genetically intelligent and skillful readers providing their kids with lots of books to read, kids become skillful readers. Evocative GenotypeEnvironment Correlations Occur because an individual?s genotype elicits certain types of physical and social environments. Example: Active, smiling children receive more social stimulation than passive, quiet children. Athletically inclined youth tend to elicit more encouragement to engage in school sports. Active (NichePicking) GenotypeEnvironment Correlations Occurs when individuals seek out environments they find compatible and stimulating. Nichepicking=finding a setting that is suited to one?s abilities. Example: Teens who are musically inclined select musical environments in which they can successfully perform their skills.
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