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1. Large molecules that contain carbon and are held together by covalent bonds are called
2. Which of the following is not a
3. The bonds that form between the units of polymeric macromolecules are _______ bonds.
4. Which of the following pairs is not a correct monomer/polymer pairing?
5. In condensation reactions, the atoms that make up a water molecule are derived from
c. both of the reactants.
6. Polymerization reactions in which polysaccharides are synthesized from monosaccharides
e. result in the formation of water.
7. During the formation of a peptide linkage, a(n) _______ is formed.
a. molecule of water
8. Polysaccharides, polypeptides, and polynucleotides
b. are broken down in hydrolysis reactions.
9. Amino acids can be classified by the
e. characteristics of their side chains or “R” groups.
10. A protein can best be defined as a polymer
a. of amino acids.
11. Which of the following is characteristic of proteins?
d. Some function as enzymes.
12. The side chain of leucine is a hydrocarbon. In a folded protein, where would you expect to find leucine?
a. In the interior of a cytoplasmic enzyme, b. On the exterior of a protein embedded in a membrane
13. What type of amino acid side chains would you expect to find on the surface of a protein embedded in a cell membrane?
14. Peptide chains have a(n) _______ and a(n) _______ end.
c. N terminus; C terminus
15. What is the theoretical number of different proteins that you could make from 50 amino acids?
16. There are _______ different types of tripeptides (molecules with three amino acids linked together) that can exist using the 20 common amino acids.
17. The shape of a folded protein is often determined by
b. the sequence of its amino acids.
18. The amino acids of the protein keratin are arranged in a helix. This secondary structure is stabilized by
e. hydrogen bonds.
19. The tertiary structure of a protein is determined by its
c. hydrogen bonding.
20. A b pleated sheet organization in a polypeptide chain is an example of _______ structure.
21. Quaternary structure is found in proteins
a. composed of subunits.
22. Enzymes are
23. When a protein loses its three-dimensional structure and becomes nonfunctional it is
24. Incorrect folding of a protein can have serious consequences. For instance, an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain is a characteristic of
b. Alzheimer’s disease.
25. Which of the following protein structures is/are destroyed by denaturation?
26. A type of protein that functions by helping other proteins to fold correctly is called a
27. The atoms that make up carbohydrates are
d. C, H, and O.
28. The difference between a- and b-glucose is
b. in the placement of OH and H atoms.
29. A molecule with the formula C16H30O15 is a
30. Glucose and fructose both have the formula C6H12O6, but the atoms in these two compounds are arranged differently. Glucose and fructose are known as
31. The monomers that make up polymeric carbohydrates, like starch are called
32. A simple sugar with the formula C5H10O5 can be classified as a
33. Lactose, or milk sugar, is composed of one glucose unit and one galactose unit. It can be classified as a
34. A type of molecule very often drawn with a single six-sided ring structure is
35. Maltose and lactose are similar in that they both are
36. Sucrose, known as common table sugar, is a
37. DNA and RNA contain
38. A molecule that has an important role in long-term storage of energy is
39. Two important polysaccharides made up of glucose monomers are _______ and _______.
d. cellulose; starch
40. Why does bread become hard and stale?
b. In the absence of water, unbranched starch forms hydrogen bonds between polysaccharides, which then aggregate.
41. In animals, glucose is stored in the compound
42. Starch and glycogen are different in that only one of them
c. is made in plants.
43. Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. Its main function is
e. to provide mechanical strength to plant cell walls.
44. Chitin is a polymer of
45. Lipids are
a. insoluble in water.
b. important for energy storage.
d. important constituents of biological membranes.
46. Cholesterol is soluble in ether, an organic solvent, but it is not soluble in water. Based on this information, what class of biological macromolecules does cholesterol belong to?
47. Which of the following is not a function in which lipids play an important role?
48. Which of the following is not a characteristic of lipids?
49. You have isolated an unidentified liquid from a sample of beans. You add the liquid to a beaker of water and shake vigorously. After a few minutes, the water and the other liquid separate into two layers. To which class of large biological molecules does the unknown liquid most likely belong?
51. Lipids form the barriers surrounding various compartments within an organism. Which property of lipids makes them a good barrier?
a. Many biologically important molecules are not soluble in lipids.
52. You look at the label on a container of shortening and see “hydrogenated vegetable oil.” This means that during processing the number of carbon–carbon double bonds in the oil was decreased. What is the result of decreasing the number of double bonds?
b. The oil is now a solid at room temperature.
53. The portion of a phospholipid that contains the phosphorous group has one or more electric charges. That makes this region of the molecule
54. Fatty acids are molecules that
b. are composed of hydrogen, carbon, and a carboxyl group.
55. A fat contains fatty acids and
56. Unsaturated fatty acids do not pack together due to
a. kinks in the hydrocarbon-chain ribozymes.
57. In a biological membrane, the phospholipids are arranged with the fatty acid chains facing the interior
of the membrane. As a result, the interior of the membrane is
58. Waxes are formed by
c. combining fatty acids with alcohol.
59. A nucleotide contains a pentose, a phosphate, and a(n)
c. nitrogen-containing base.
60. The “backbone” of nucleic acid molecules is made of
61. What is the nucleotide sequence of the complementary strand of the DNA molecule: A A T G C G A?
a. T T A C G C T
62. Which of the following is not a difference between DNA and RNA?
d. DNA is a polymer, whereas RNA is a monomer.
63. According to the base-pairing rules for nucleic acids, purines always pair with
64. The four nitrogenous bases of RNA are abbreviated as
e. A, G, C, and U.
65. DNA carries genetic information in its
66. The double helix structure of DNA is due to
d. hydrogen bonding of the two complementary polynucleotide strands.
67. In DNA, A hydrogen bonds with T and G with C; these are examples of a specific type of reaction called
a. complementary base pairing.
68. Examination of meteorites has revealed that they contain the chemistry of life. All of the following have been found in meteorites except
69. Examination of meteorites suggests that
a. life is not limited to Earth.
70. Miller-Urey showed that in any environment with conditions similar to those of Earth,
a. inorganic molecules would react to form organic molecules.
71. Earth’s early atmosphere contained all of the following gases except
72. Spontaneous generation was disproved by
c. Francesco Redi and Louis Pasteur.
73. RNA molecules that act as catalysts are called
1. When chlorine atoms replace some of the hydroxyl groups in sucrose, a very sweet calorie-free sugar known as _______ is formed.
4. The compound inositol has six hydroxyl groups attached to a six-carbon backbone. Thus inositol can be classified as a(n)_______.
5. The reaction H —A— OH H — B— OH → H —A— B— OH + H2O represents a _______.
6. All amino acids have a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a _______ group.
7. In proteins, amino acids are linked together by _______ bonds.
8. The linear arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide chain is referred to as the _______ structure of the protein.
9. The covalent bond forces between the sulfur atoms of two cysteine side chains is called a _______.
10. van der Waals forces can form between _______ side chains in proteins.
11. Carbohydrates made up of two simple sugars are called _______.
12. All living cells contain the monosaccharide _______.
13. The bonds that link sugar monomers in a starch molecule are _______ bonds.
14. The highly branched polysaccharide that stores glucose in the muscle and the liver of animals is _______.
15. A(n) _______ linkage connects the fatty acid molecule to glycerol.
16. Fatty acids with more than one carbon–carbon double bond are called _______.
17. Fluidity and melting point of fatty acids are partially determined by the number of _______ bonds.
19. Vitamins D, E, and F have a multiple-ring structure and are members of a family of lipids known as _______.
20. The diversity found among DNA molecules is due to the sequence of _______.
18. Cholesterol is classified as a(n) _______.
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