Designing a Competitive Business Model and Building a Solid Strategic Plan Chapter 3: Strategic Plan A Major Shift . . . . . . From financial capital to intellectual capital. Human Structural Customer Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Strategic Management Is crucial to building a successful business. Involves developing a game plan to guide a company as it strives to accomplish its mission, goals , and objectives, and to keep it on its desired course. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage Developing a strategic plan is crucial to creating a sustainable competitive advantage, the aggregation of factors that sets a company apart from its competitors and gives it a unique position in the market that is superior to its competition. Example: Blockbuster Video Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Key: Core Competencies Unique set of capabilities a company develops in key areas, such as superior quality, customer service, innovation, team-building, flexibility, responsiveness, and others that allow it to vault past competitors. They are what a company does best. Best to rely on a natural advantage (often linked to a company?s ?smallness?). Examples: Netflix and Tom?s of Maine Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Building a Sustainable Competitive Advantage Superior value for customers Sustainable competitive advantage Capabilities Core competencies Skills Lessons learned Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Strategic Management Process Step 1. Develop a vision and translate it into a mission statement. Step 2. Assess strengths and weaknesses. Step 3. Scan environment for opportunities and threats. Step 4. Identify key success factors. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Strategic Management Process Step 5. Analyze competition. Step 6. Create goals and objectives. Step 7. Formulate strategies. Step 8. Translate plans into actions. Step 9. Establish accurate controls. (continued) Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 1: Develop a Vision and Create a Mission Statement Vision ? the result of an entrepreneur?s dream of something that does not exist yet and the ability to paint a compelling picture of that dream for everyone to see. A clearly defined vision: Provides direction Determines decisions Motivates people Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 1: Develop a Vision and Create a Mission Statement Addresses question: ?What business are we in?? The mission is a written expression of how the company will reflect an entrepreneur?s values, beliefs, and vision ? more than just ?making money.? Serves as a ?strategic compass.? Examples: Chick-fil-A and Starbucks. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 1: Develop a Vision and Create a Mission Statement Survey of employees: 89 percent of employees say their companies have a mission statement but? Only 23 percent of workers believe their company?s mission statement has become a way of doing business! Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 2: Assess Company Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths Positive internal factors a company can draw on to accomplish its mission, goals, and objectives. Weaknesses Negative internal factors that inhibit a company?s ability to accomplish its mission, goals, and objectives. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 3: Scan for Opportunities and Threats Opportunities Positive external factors the company can exploit to accomplish its mission, goals, and objectives. Threats Negative external factors that inhibit the firm's ability to accomplish its mission, goals, and objectives. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan The Power of External Market Forces Competitive Economic Political and Regulatory Technological Social and Demographic Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 4: Identify Key Success Factors Key success factors: controllable variables that determine the relative success of market participants. The keys to unlocking the secrets of competing successfully in a particular market segment. Example: John H. Daniel Company Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Identifying Key Success Factors List the skills, characteristics, and core competencies that your business must possess if it is to be successful in its market segment. Conclusions: Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 High 5. Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 High 4. Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 High 3. Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 High 2. Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 High 1. How Your Company Rates Key Success Factor Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 5: Analyze Competitors NFIB study: Small business owners believe they operate in a highly competitive environment and the level of competition is increasing. Yet, 97 percent of all U.S. businesses do not systematically track the progress of their key competitors. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 5: Analyze Competitors Analyzing key competitors allows an entrepreneur to: Avoid surprises from existing competitors? new strategies and tactics. Identify potential new competitors and the threats they pose. Improve reaction time to competitors? actions. Anticipate rivals? next strategic moves. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 5: Analyze Competitors Techniques do not require unethical behavior: Monitor industry and trade publications. Talk to customers and suppliers. Regularly debrief employees, especially sales representatives and purchasing agents. Attend trade shows and conferences and study competitors? sales literature. Watch for employment ads from competitors to get an idea about their plans for the future. Conduct patent searches for patents competitors have filed. Get EPA reports that provide information about the factories of competing manufacturers. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 5: Analyze Competitors Techniques do not require unethical behavior: Learn about the kinds of equipment and raw materials competitors are importing from the Journal of Commerce Port Import Export Reporting Service. Buy competitors? products and ?benchmark? them. Get competitors? credit reports. Check out the reports publicly held competitors must file with the SEC. Investigate UCC reports. Check out the resources in your local library. Use the World Wide Web to learn more about competitors. Visit competing businesses to observe their operations. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Knowledge Management The practice of gathering, organizing, and disseminating the collective wisdom and experience of a company?s employees for the purpose of strengthening its competitive position. Knowledge management involves: Taking inventory of the special knowledge the people in the company possess. Organizing that knowledge and disseminating it to those who need it. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Is Setting Goals and Objectives Really Important? ?Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?? said Alice. ?That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,? said the Cheshire cat. ?I don?t much care care where.?? said Alice. ?Then it doesn?t matter which way you go,? said the cat. - Lewis Carroll?s Alice in Wonderland Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 6: Create Company Goals and Objectives Goals - broad, long-range attributes to be accomplished. ?BHAGs? Objectives - more detailed, specific targets of performance that are S.M.A.R.T. Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic (yet challenging) Timely Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 7: Formulate Strategies Strategy - a road map of the actions an entrepreneur draws up to achieve a company?s mission, goals, and objectives. It is the company?s game plan for gaining a competitive advantage. Three basic strategies: Strategy? Cost leadership Differentiation Focus Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Three Strategic Options Competitive Advantage Target Market Industry Niche Uniqueness Perceived by the Customer Low Cost Position Differentiation Low Cost Differentiation Focus Cost Focus Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Cost Leadership Goal: to be the low-cost producer in the industry (or market segment). Low-cost leaders have an advantage in reaching buyers who buy on the basis of price, and they have the power to set the industry?s price floor. Works well when: Buyers are sensitive to price changes. Competing firms sell the same commodity products. A company can benefit from economies of scale. Example: JetBlue Airlines Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Differentiation Company seeks to build customer loyalty by positioning its goods or services in a unique or different fashion. Idea is to be special at something customers value. Key: Build basis for differentiation on a distinctive competence, something that the small company is uniquely good at doing in comparison to its competitors. Examples: Urban Outfitters and the Ice Hotel Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Focus Company selects one or more customer segments in a market; identifies customers? special needs, wants, or interests; and then targets them with a product or service designed specifically for them. Strategy builds on differences among market segments. Rather than try to serve the total market, the company focuses on serving a niche (or several niches) within that market. Examples: Cereality and Flutter Fetti Fun Factory Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 8: Translate Strategies into Action Plans Survey of senior executives: Companies achieved only 63 percent of the results in their strategic plans. Create projects by defining: Purpose Scope Contribution Resource requirements Timing Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Step 9: Establish Accurate Controls Plan establishes the standards against which actual performance is measured. Entrepreneur must: identify and track key performance indicators. take corrective action. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Balanced Scorecards A set of measurements unique to a company that includes both financial and operational measures Gives managers a quick, yet comprehensive, picture of a company?s overall performance. Chapter 3: Strategic Plan Balanced Scorecards Four Perspectives: Customer: How do customers see us? Internal Business: At what must we excel? Innovation and Learning: Can we continue to improve and create value? Financial: How do we look to shareholders? Chapter 3: Strategic Plan The Balanced Scorecard Links Performance Measures Financial Perspective Goals Measures Customer Perspective Goals Measures Internal Business Perspective Goals Measures Innovation and Learning Perspective Goals Measures How do customers see us? How do we look to shareholders? At what must we excel? Can we continue to improve and create value? Chapter 3: Strategic Plan
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