A process in which radiation is captured by a molecule. unlike reflection, absorption represents an energy transfer to the absorbing molecule
a process in which radiation arriving at a surface bounces back, without being absorbed or transmitted. reflection does not heat the reflector, because there is no net energy transfer to the surface
the fraction of solar radiation arriving at a surface that is reflected
When light reflects back a beam of equal intensity... ex.. mirror
diffuse reflection/ scattering
When a beam is reflected from an object as a larger number of weaker rays traveling in many different directions
sunlight that is scattered downward to the surface
sunlight that passes through the atmosphere without absorption or scattering
The scattering of radiation by agents substantially smaller than the radiation's wavelength. In the case of the atmosphere, this applies to the scattering of visible radiation by air molecules.
Scattering of visible radiation caused by particles
Scattering of radiation in which all wavelengths are scattered about equally. This type of scattering causes clouds to appear white.
The solar radiation incident at the top of the earth's atmosphere.
about 30% reflection back to space, .. (planet actually shines more from atmospheric reflection than surface reflection
The range of wavelengths (about 8-12um) that are not readily absorbed by the gases of the atmosphere
net longwave radiation
the difference between absorbed and emitted long wave radiation
net allwave radiation or net radiation
the difference between absorbed and emitted radiation, or equivalently, the net energy gained or lost by radiation
laminar boundary layer
thin adjacent sliver of air near ground that sets up a temperature gradient good for conduction
the mixing process related to buoyancy, the tendency for a lighter fluid to float upward. heat transfer mechanism
forced convection/ mechanical turbulence
when a fluid breaks into disorganized swirling motions as it undergoes a large-scale flow.
The energy contained in air that can be sensed via its temperature
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a given mass of substance by a given amount.
(1) Energy present in water vapor, used in converting water from liquid to gas. Latent heat is released upon condensation. (2) Energy associated with the change of phase of a substance
Horizontal transport of some atmospheric property (heat, moisture, etc.)
interactions that warm the atmosphere
A line on a weather map connecting points of equal temperature. moving along an isotherm, there is no change in temperature. Temperature gradients are perpendicular to isotherms.
Condition in which temperature increases with increasing altitude.
Must contain mercury. contains a tube bulb thingy where mercury expands outward when the temperature increases
Must contain alcohol. has a small dumbbell.
two thin strips of different metals bonded together
gives continuous records of temperature
sends electrical current through a very thin filament made conductor or semiconductor exposed to the air
An object whose electrical resistance changes with temperature, thus allowing temperature to be determined by measuring changes in electrical current.
An instrument package carried by balloon, used to measure vertical profiles of temperature, moisture, and pressure. Measurements are radioed to the ground from the instrument cluster.
windchill temperature index
An index of apparent temperature used for cold conditions that incorporates air temperature and wind speed
An index of the amount of seasonal heating required for a location, calculated by subtracting the daily mean temperature from a base temperature (usually 65 deg F) and summing the differences. Days with mean temperatures above the base are ignored
index the amount of seasonal air conditioning required for a location, calculated by subtracting a base temp (65) from the daily mean temperature and summing the differences. Days with means below are ignored in calculation.
index for estimating when crops will have undergone enough growth to send them to the market. Calculated by subtracting a base temp for a particular crop from the daily mean temperature and summing the differences
Shows the relationships between pressure, temperature, density, and water vapor content, such that characteristics of air parcels can be determined as they ascend and descend.
A particular type of thermodynamic diagram used for plotting temperature and moisture profiles
intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC)
The agency of the world meteorological organization charged with assessing and disseminating current knowledge about climate change
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