The chemical composition of the molecules that contain genes, which are the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins.
One of the 46 molecules in DNA that virtually each cell of the human body contains and that together contain all the genes.
A small section of a chromosome; the basic unit for the transmission of heredity. A gene consists of a string of chemicals that provide instructions for the cell to manufacture certain proteins.
A variation that makes a gene different in some way from other genes with the same characteristics.
The full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual a member of a certain species.
The single cell formed from the union of two gametes, a sperm and ovum.
A reproductive cell; that is, a sperm or ovum that can produce a new individual if combined with a gamete from the opposite sex.
An organism's entire genetic makeup.
Referring to two genes of one pair that are exactly the same in every letter of their code.
Referring to two genes of one pair that differ in same way.
The chromosome pair that in humans, determines sex. The other 22 pairs are autosomes; inherited equally by males and females.
Both parents donated their X shaped chromosomes, resulting in female offspring.
X chromosome from mom and Y chromosome from dad, resulting in male offspring.
Cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form.
Twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development. Identical twins.
Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time.
Assisted Reproductive Technology
A general term for techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and sustain pregnancy.
In Vitro Fertilization
Fertilization that occurs outside of the body.
The observable characteristics of a person. Their physical appearance.
Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes.
Referring to a trait that is affected by many factors, both genetic and environmental; enhancing halting, shaping, or altering the expression of genes.
Referring to environmental factors that affect genes and genetic expression.
Human Genome Project
An international effort to map the complete human genetic code.
The interaction of a heterozygous pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one allele more than the other.
A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype.
Referring to a gene carried on the X chromosome. Females are more likely to be carriers of X-linked traits but are less likely to express them.
A statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation in a particular trait within a population, in a particular context and era, that can be traced to genes.
A condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. It is an extra copy of chromosomes at the 21 site.
Fragile X Syndrome
A genetic disorder in which part of the X chromosome seems to be attached to the rest of it by a very thin string of molecules.
Consultation and testing by trained experts that enable individuals to learn about their genetic heritage, including harmful conditions that they might pass along to their children.
A genetic disorder in which a child's body is unable to metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine. Unless the infant immediately begins a special diet, the resulting buildup of phenylalanine causes brain damage, progressive mental retardation, and other symptoms.
Want to see the other 31 Flashcards in Chapter 3 Vocabulary?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!