consists of the values the members of a given group hold, the languages they speak,. The symbols they revere, the norms they follow, and the material goods they create, from tools to clothing.
definite principles or rules people are expected to observe; they represent the dos and donts of social life.
the physical objects that a society creates, which influence the ways in which people live.- goods we consume, clothes we wear, etc.
a system of interrelationships that connect individuals together. No culture could exist without culture.
sociology?s recent emphasis on the importance of understanding the role of culture in our daily lives.
the application of biological principles to explain the social activities of animals, including humans.
inborn, biologically fixed patterns of act on found in all cultures.
groups that largely reject the prevailing values and norms of society.
calls for respecting cultural diversity and promoting equality of different cultures. Acknowledges that certain central cultural values are shared by most people in a society but also that important differences deserve to be preserved.
judging other cultures in terms of the standards of one?s own
the practice of judging a society by its own standards.
common features that are found in almost all societies
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
the language we use influences our perceptions of the world.
vehicle of meaning-any set of elements used to communicate (sounds made in speech)
- the analysis of nonverbal cultural meanings
Hunting and Gathering Societies
small tribes of no more than 30-40 people with few inequalities and differences in rank limited by age and gender (50,000 BCE to present)
small rural communities, ruled by chiefs, stronger inequalities (12,000 BCE-present)
a few hundred to many thousand people, tend to domesticate animals for food, distinct inequalities, ruled by chiefs/warrior kings (12,000 BCE-present)