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The study of cells.
The functional and structural unit of life.
All living things within a cell.
The theory that all living things are made up of microscopic units called cells.
List the concepts of the cell theory.
-The cell is the basic unit of living things.
-Cells perform all the functions of living things.
-Cells come from the reproduction of existing cells.
Describe how the surface area of a cell can influence the maximum sixe of a cell might attain.
As the cell grows, its volume increases faster then does the surface area, at a certain sixe the cell will need more nutrients than can pass though the membrane.
One celled organism
Many celled organism
A collection of similar cells living together
A group of similar cells that work together to carry our a specific function
Several types of tissues working together to perform a specific function
Made up of a group of organs that work together to accomplish life functions
Chemical interaction between these proteins from the connection s between the cells
The passageway that connects the cytoplasm of plant cells.
Do you think it is accurate to describe a unicellular organism as simple? Why?
No, I believe it is not. Because a organism that in only one celled must be more complex sense it is living on its on in stead of working together with many of other cells.
Explain the difference between a colony and a tissue.
Give three examples of (a) organs in the human body and (b) organ systems in the human body.
a. The stomach, kidneys, and the liver.
b. The digestive system, nervous system, reproductive system.
A cell that possesses both organelles and a nucleus that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane
Specialized structure within a cell that performs in a specific function
A cell that lacks a nuclear membrane and has only indistinct organelles
The cellular membrane that forms the outermost boundary of a cells cytoplasm and also encloses the membrane – bond organelles within a cell
Fluid mosaic model
A model describing cellular membranes as being composed of a lipid bilayer with proteins scattered throughout the membrane.
A ridged structure manufactured by the cell
A cellular secretion surrounding certain algae and bacteria
A addition to a cell wall.
All the material inside the plasma membrane of a cell, excluding the nucleus
The colloid portion of the cytoplasm
Membrane-bond cellular organelles responsible for the respiration of foods to release unsable energy.
The folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
A non-membrane-bond cellular organelle associated with protein foundation
A cellular structure consisting of a complex network of fine, branching tubules
A membrane-bound organelle that deals with synthesis and packaging of materials
A membrane-bound organelle that contains various hydrolytic enzymes
The internal structure of cytoplasm
An area near the nucleus of a cell that functions in the production of microtubules
A long tubular extension of a cell’s plasma membrane that aids in movement
One of the numerous short extensions of a cells plasma membrane
The action-controlling structure at the base of a cilium or flagellum
Hollow, spiral assembly of protein molecules that compose flagella, cilia, mitotic, spindles, and other cellular structures
An organelle composed of microtubules and located near the nucleus.
Flexible, rodlike assembly of protein molecules found in cells
Membrane-bond organelle found in plants, algae, ad a few other organisms, but not in animals
An organelle that contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Flat sac in a chloroplast that forms grana.
Structures within chloroplast that contain the chlorophyll and other pigments involved in photosynthesis.
A membrane-bound organelle in a cell.
A small vacuole.
The positively charged central portion of an atom.
The double membrane forming the surface of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells
A complex of DNA and surrounding proteins in the nucleus of a cell
A spherical body in the nucleus that has a high concentration of RNA and proteins.
Name the three categories of eukaryotic cell anatomy.
-A boundary that encloses the cell
-The cytoplasm containing various kinds of structure and molecules
-The nucleus that contains DNA and other materials
What is an organelle?
An organelle is a cytoplasmic structure that performs special functions in the cell.
How does a prokaryotic cell differ from a eukaryotic cell?
A eukaryotic cell is a cell that possesses both organelles and a nucleus that is surrounded by a nuclear membrane and a prokaryotic cell is a cell that lacks a nuclear membrane and has only indistinct organelles.
Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane.
The plasma membrane is the structure that separates the cell form its environment. Its function is controls movement of substances in and out of the cell.
Which organelles other than the nucleus contain DNA?
Chloroplast contains its own DNA.
List the cellular organelles and describe their functions.
Describe the two functions of cilia.
One function is moving a unicellular organism or a mobile mulitcellular organism through it’s environment and another would be to move the environment past a cell whose position is fixed.
Why do you think that the nucleus is often called the “control center” of the cell?
I think because it’s just that, it controls the whole cell just like a human brain does.
Describe the structure of the plant cell wall. Is it living? Why or why not?
The cell wall is a rigid or nearly rigid structure that is located on the outside of the plasma membrane.
What are the three components of the cytoskeleton? Discuss the structure and function of each.
-Microtubules – Structure - Long, somewhat stiff tubular. Function – They give shape and support to the cell as well as providing tracks to transport organelles and other cellular substances inside the cells.
-Intermediate filaments – Structure – Tough fibrous proteins. Function – Provide strength for the cell.
-Microfilaments – Structure – Composed of two molecules of the protein actin. Function – Dissemble and assemble as needed for the cell.
What is the difference between a leucoplast and a chromoplast?
Leucoplast are colorless structures used as storehouses and chromoplast is structures that contain pigments and usually function in synthesis processes.
The equilibrium of internal “steady-sate” that every living organism must remain.
The point in which something functions best.
A solution that has the same concentration of solutes as the cytoplasm of living cells.
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than in the cytoplasm of living cells.
the bursting or disintegration of a cell
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than in the cytoplasm of living cells.
the shrinking of a cell’s protoplasm when the cell loses water
Why is homeostasis called an equilibrium? Why is homeostasis described as dynamic?
The organism is constantly interacting with the surrounding environment to resist change. When the surround conditions are altered, the organism must adjust to maintain the homeostasis of life.
Compare and contrast optimal point, optimal range, range of tolerance, and limit of tolerance.
Optimal point – The point in which something functions best.
Optimal range – The range of temperatures that are optimal for the body.
Range of tolerance – The range of temperatures in which a cell or organism will remain alive of will not function properly.
Limit of tolerance – The point where an organism dies.
Explain the difference between plasmolysis and cytolysis.
Compare and contrast isotonic, hypotonic, and hypertonic solutions.
Isotonic – A solution that has the same concentration of solutes as the cytoplasm of living cells.
Hypotonic – A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than in the cytoplasm of living cells.
Hypertonic – A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than in the cytoplasm of living cells.
List two methods some cells use to withstand hypotonic environments, discussing important structures and how they function.
The movement of substance through a cellular membrane without the expenditure of cellular energy
Passive mediated transport
Passive transport that requires the presence of a protein factor in the cellular membrane
Membrane transport protein
A protein molecule embedded in the plasma membrane that mediates the passage of certain molecules
The first type of membrane transport proteins
A protein embedded in the cellular membrane that functions to transport specific molecules across the cellular membrane
The movement of molecules across cellular membrane against the concentration gradient
The process a cell uses to transport substances in bulk across the membrane
The process of a cell engulfing a substance
The process whereby a cell takes in fluid by forming vesicles
The process in which vacuoles or vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release particles or substances from the cell
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