Activating particular associations in memory is called
Researchers provided study participants with evidence that either risk-prone or cautious people make better firefighters. When participants wrote an explanation for the findings, they were particularly susceptible to
Research has shown that explaining why an opposite theory may be true (e.g., why a cautious person might be a better firefighter than a risk-taking person) _______ belief perseverance.
While waiting to cross the street, you witness a man running a red light—causing a three-car accident. Just after it happens, the man who ran the stoplight gets out of the car to talk to you. He tells you that the light was yellow. Later you tell police that you remembered the light being yellow, not red, when the man went through the intersection. This scenario illustrates
the misinformation effect
Your summer vacation was perhaps not an overwhelmingly positive event, but during the final week of August, you remember it as being a fantastic time. This is an example of
You used to envy your brother because he was always so confident when talking to others. Yet the older you become, the more you realize that your brother is more often convinced of things rather than accurate about things. Your brother's behavior can be explained by the
Which of the following strategies might be helpful in reducing the overconfidence bias?
Get people to think about why their judgments might be wrong.
When we are eager to seek information that verifies our beliefs but less inclined to seek evidence that might disprove our beliefs, the _______ has occurred.
Once during a hospital stay, you observed a man and a woman (both in health professional attire) talking. You might have assumed that the man was a physician and that the woman was a nurse. Later, you might have found out that the opposite was true. What type of heuristic was used during this described initial evaluation about the profession of the two individuals?
Assuming most crimes involve violence because the news generally reports on rapes, robberies, and beatings is an example of the _______ heuristic.
After 9/11, many people abandoned air travel because of the
Counterfactual thinking is more likely when
we can easily picture an alternative outcome
The perception of a relationship where none actually exists, or the perception of a stronger relationship than actually exists, is called
an illusory correlation
Although you once earned a 100 on your physics exam, you have subsequently been unable to earn a perfect score again. Your experience may be understood in terms of
regression towards the average
According to the text, many men assume women are flattered by repeated requests for dates, which women more often see as harassing. This is an example of
Attributing behavior to a person's traits is an example of what type of attribution?
According to the attribution theorist Kelley (1973), what three types of information do we use when we make attributions for other people's behavior?
consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus
After reading a newspaper article about teenagers who illegally download music from the Internet, you conclude that those who engage in such behavior are morally bankrupt. It probably does not occur to you that the reasons teenagers download music from the Internet is because they do not want to spend limited funds for a compact disc, or the temptation to download, coupled with the peer pressure to do so, is often great. Your thinking on this matter can be characterized by the
fundamental attribution error
Inferring that Cinderella is truly meek as she cowers in her oppressive home is an example of how we often
forget about situational influences
We tend to underestimate the situational determinants of others' behavior but not our own because we observe others from a different perspective than we observe ourselves. This is known as the
What commands our attention as we shop for groceries each week is the environment around us, such as the number of people in front of us at the checkout counter. Yet when we watch another person's behavior at the grocery store, he or she, rather than the environment, occupies the center of our attention. As a result, we tend to engage in the attribution error. That is, we are irritable because the lines are long, but the other person is cantankerous because he or she is an unhappy person. What explanation below best explains this use of the fundamental attribution error?
According to the text, observers tend to attribute a person's behavior to _______ the more that time passes.
Burger and Pavelich (1994) found that voters were more likely to attribute the outcome of an election to the candidate's personal traits and positions the day after a presidential election, and to the nation's economy a year after the election. This represents which of the following explanations for the fundamental attribution error?
changing perspectives trend
Those who make mostly situational attributions regarding poverty and unemployment may tend to adopt political positions that
favor more governmental financial support for the poor
Those who make mostly dispositional attributions regarding poverty and unemployment may tend to adopt political positions that
believe less in governmental financial support for the poor.
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