A schedule showing the amounts of a good or service that buyers (or a buyer) wish to purchase at various prices during some time period.
Also known as Demand.
Law of Demand
The principle that, other things equal, an increase in a product's price will reduce the quantity of it demanded, and conversely for a decrease in price.
Diminishing Marginal Utility
Also known as the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility.
A change in the quantity demanded of a product that results from the change in real income (purchasing power) caused by a change in the product's price.
1. A change in the quantity demanded of a consumer good that results form a change in its relative expensiveness caused by a change in the product's price;
2. The effect of a change in the price of a resource on the quantity of the resource employed by a firm, assuming no change in its output.
A curve illustrating Demand.
Determinants of Demand
Factors other than price that determine the quantities demanded of a good or service.
A good or service whose consumption increases when income increases and falls when income decreases, price remaining constant.
A good or service whose consumption declines a income rises, prices held constant.
Productive inputs that can be used in place of each other. When the price of one falls, the demand for the other product falls; conversely, when the price of one product rises, the demand for other product rises.
Products and services that are used together. When the price of one falls, the demand for the other increases (and conversely).
Change in Demand
A change in the quantity demanded of a good or service at every price; a shift of the demand curve to the left or right.
Change in Quantity Demanded
A change in the amount of a product that consumers are willing and able to purchase because of a change in the product's price.
A schedule showing the amounts of a good or service that sellers (or a seller) will offer at various prices during some period.
Also known as Supply.
Law of Supply
The principle that, other things equal, an increase in the price of a product will increase the quantity of its supplied, and conversely for a price decrease.
A curve illustrating supply.
Determinants of Supply
Factors other than price that determine the quantities supplied of a good or service.
Change in Supply
A change in the quantity supplied of a good or service at every price; a shift of the supply curve to the left or right.
Change in Quantity Supplied
A change in the amount of a product that producers offer for sale because of a change in the product's price.
1. The quantity demanded and supplied at the equilibrium price in a competitive market;
2. The profit-maximizing output of a firm.
The price in a competitive market at which the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied are equal, there is neither a shortage nor a surplus, and there is no tendency for price or rise of fall.
The amount by which the quantity supplied of a product exceeds the quantity demanded at a specific (above equilibrium) price.
The amount by which the quantity demanded of a product exceeds the quantity supplied at a particular (below equilibrium) price.
The production of a good in the least costly way; occurs when production takes place at the output at which average total cost is a minimum and marginal product per dollar's worth of input is the same for all inputs.
The apportionment of resources among firms and industries to obtain the production of the products most wanted by society (consumers); the output of each product at which its marginal cost and price or marginal benefits are equal, and at which the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus is maximized.
A legally established maximum price for a good or service.
A legally established minimum price above the equilibrium.
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