Humans are born w/ biologically determined behavs that promote adaptive developmental outcomes. Emphasizes that adaptive behavs are added continuously but that some adaptive capabilities emerge abruptly during sensitive periods. Biologically programmed adaptive behavs stressed although enviro is necessary for success. organismic.
Modern Evolutionary Theory
humans born w adaptive attributes that have evolved through natural selection and channel development in ways that promote adaptive outcomes. influenced by experiences and claim certain chars likely to develop during sensitive periods, provided enviro fosters this.
by virtue of genetically influenced chars, we elicit responses from others and we select envier niches for ourselves. genotype/environment interac occur continuously. emphasis on nature but genes exert heavy influence on enviro where develop takes place. organismic. study of how genotypes and enviro contribute to phenotypes. look at non-shared and shared enviro influences. Criticized as incomplete theory of development that does not explain how either genes or enviro influence us.
Ecological Systems Theory
humans actively influence enviro context that influence their develop. emphasize transactions btwn ever-changing individuals and ever-changing enviros lead to quantitative develop changes. discontinuous personal/enviro events can produce abrupt changes. nurture, although bio attributes can affect enviro. contextual. Bronfenbrenner
Vygotsky, childrens minds skills and personalities develop as they acquire tools of intellectual adaptation that pertain to their culture. acquire cultural beliefs, values in context of collaborative dialogues with skillful partners and internalize tutors instructions to master tasks w/in zone of proximal develop. collaborative learning w/ scaffolding
Social Information Processing Theory
children actively posses enviro info to answer questions, interpret causes of their own and others behave, acquire culturally valued attributes/ modes of thinking. Gradual acquisition of social info processing skills. nurture. contextual. children’s rxns to social experiences depend on casual attributions they make about their own and other people’s behavior. Criticism: rarely provides a complete account of phenomena. complementary theory
Discuss the conceptual similarities and differences between classical ethologists (e.g., Lorenz & Tinbergen) and modern evolutionary theorists (John Bowlby). How do both of these groups differ from behavioral geneticists?
L/T assert that humans have biologically programmed behavs that are product of evolution and contribute to survival. B says yes we are biologically programmed and e/a response promoes a kind of experience that will help us survive. There is adaptive learning component to this, even believe in critical periods
Explain Martin Hoffman's belief that the concept of survival of the fittest implies altruism.
people who are altruistic are more social, better able to function w/in groups and would have group protection. selfish individuals would be on their own and would be more likely to perish. evolution selects for social values.
What evidence has been found that empathy is present at birth. How do neuroscientists explain newborn empathic responding?
Newborn babies were exposed to real cry, recorded cry and nothing; they responded w more distress to real cry than recorded cry
Describe the two kinds of family studies that behavioral geneticists use to estimate hereditary contributions to human development. State the question asked by each type.
Twin study: are pairs of identical twins reared together more similar to each other on various attributes than pairs of fraternal twins reared together? identical should have more in common Adoption design: “are adopted children similar to heir biological parents whose genes they share or are they similar to their adoptive parents whose environment they share?”
Define "shared environmental influences" and "nonshared environmental influences" and describe how each impacts similarities and differences between family members.
Non-shared are influences that 2 people in the same home don’t both experience. Shared are ones they do experience. Changes IQ, personality
Define and describe the differences between "active", "passive" and "evocative" gene influences (aka genotype/environment correlations).
Passive: home enviro influenced by parent’s, child’s genes--heredity and enviro compound Evocative: diffs in enviros partly due to inheritance of diff genes and you licit diff rxns Active: seek out enviros compatible w/ genotype, compound (extrovert v. introvert)
In terms, of Scarr and McCartney's theory explain how separated identical twins might show uncanny similarities and, at the same time, noteworthy differences in personality and social behavior.
Similar b/c they evoke same rxn from others, predispose them to similar environments (friends, activities, interests). Diff b/c homes emphasized diff things, diff enviros, esp in early life. Active gene influences: raised in same time period so likely exposed to similar things, preferences allow highly similar likes via this. Enviro diffs (politics, religion)
Explain Sandra Scarr's ideas about "good enough parenting." Discuss Diana Baumrind's criticisms of these ideas?
Only highly abnormal home enviros will result in maladjusted kid b/c of parenting. Baumrind found highly demanding-highly responsive parents had most successful children, not all the same w/in normal range. Parents may slack off to be just good enough, when not actively involved in child rearing, kids struggle. GE would suggest we don’t need to aid low ses children, research shows aid significantly helps
How do behavior geneticists use heritability coefficients?
to measure amount of variation in a trait that is attributable to heredity factors. 0=not at all heritable and 1=totally heritable
How does Bronfenbrenner's viewpoint on environmental influences differ from the viewpoints of Skinner and Bandura?
B says natural enviros=major source of influence on developing persons. Enviro=set of nested structures like russian dolls. Must be observed in true enviro, not lab; see #18. Watson, Skinner say enviro is any and all forces that shape individuals development. Bandura says enviro influences and is influenced by person.
Define microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem
Microsystem: immediate settings a person actually encounters (family, school, peer group) impact works both ways Mesosystem: interconnections among an individuals immediate settings (school success supported by parents, social success supported by parents, peers) Exosystem: social systems people don’t directly experience but influence their develop (parents work enviro influences home happiness, child relationship; decline in school revenue)
Describe macrosystem and chronosystem
Macrosystem: larger cultural or subcultural context (cultural, social context in which previous 2 are imbedded (cultural way of resolving conflict impacts child abuse) Chronosystem: changes in the individual or enviro that cover time (age of child @ divorce)
What is collaborative learning? How is it different from the operant learning described by the early behaviorists and from observational learning described by the social learning theorists?
process of learning new skills that occurs as novices participate in activities under guidance of more skillful tutor. operant focuses on punishment and reward; digest, encode, store behavioral info
What is the most common attributional error made by preschool children.
to assume that most effects that other people produce are intentional
According to social information-processing theorists, what must children understand about their own and others' behaviors before they are likely to describe the self and others in trait-like terms?
that individuals can be the cause of various behavs, recognize that such actions are often guided by intentions and realize tat particular individuals are likely to behave in consistent and predictable ways across time and situations
What is a "world view"? Distinguish between the following world views: mechanistic
mechanistic: views children as passive entities whose developmental paths are primarily determined by external influences; like machines, collections of parts that can be decomposed, changing in response to outside influences, changing gradually
What is a "world view"? Distinguish between the following world views: organismic
organismic: views children as active entities whose develop paths are primarily determine by forces from w/in them; whole beings cannot be understood as collection of parts, active in develop process and changing under guidance of internal forces, evolving through distinct stages
What is a "world view"? Distinguish between the following world views: contextual
contextual: children as active entities whose develop paths represent continuous, dynamic interplay btwn internal forces and external influences; continuous or discontinuous change, affected by internal and external aspects
evolutionary process proposed by Darwin stating that individuals w characteristics that promote adaptation to the enviro will survive, reproduce and pass traits to offspring, others will die out
percentage of case in which a particular atribute is present for one member of a twin pair if it is present for the other
tools of intellectual adaptation
Vygotsky’s term for methods of thinking and problem-solving strategies that children internalize from their interactions with more competent members of society
ability to experience the same emotions that someone else is experiencing
process by which an expert when instructing a novice, responds contingently to the novice’s behave in a learning situation so that the novice gradually increases his understanding of a problem
zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Vygotsky’s term for the range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partner
amount of variability in a trait that is attributable to hereditary factors
process of learning that occurs as novices participate in activities under the guidance of a more skillful tutor
conclusions about the underlying causes of our own or another person’s behavior
extent to which two individuals have genes in common
Vygotsky’s term for the subset oaf child’s verbal utterances that serve a self-communicative function and guide the child’s activities
attributional heuristic implying that actions that a person consistently performs are likely to be internally caused
parenting w/in normal range of what might be considered normal for humans) Sandra Scarr
general systems theory
evolutionary basis of behavior in animals
Konrad Lorenz, and Niko Tinbergen
ecological systems theory
parenting effects on development
sensitive period vs critical period
time optimal for learning but less rigid, is possible for learning/development to occur outside even though this is hard v. short part of life during which you are sensitive to spec enviro influences, if you don’t learn them now you never will be able to
heritability vs inherited
determine hereditary basis for differences people display on an attribute, say nothing about particular person or capacity for change v. definitively know whether a person received genes for a particular trait
genotype vs phenotype
genealogical expression v. observable expression of genes
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