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Which of the following best defines hypnosis?
The neodissociation theory of hypnosis suggests that the hypnotized person experiences:
consciously experiences one stream of mental activity that is responding to the hypnotist's suggestions.
but a second, dissociated stream of mental activity is also operating, processing information that is unavailable to the consciousness of the hypnotized subject.
Meditation techniques that involve focusing your awareness on an image, a word, a phrase, or your breathing are referred to as _____ techniques.
Knowledge of how to perform different skills and actions is called _____ _______.
Which of the following statements best summarizes how hypnosis affects memory?
* post-hypnotic amnesia
For most adults, earliest autobiographical memories are of events occurring between the ages of _____ and _____ years old.
Compared to European American students, earliest autobiographical memories for Chinese and Taiwanese college students were more likely to include:
Pavlov found that a conditioned response would be stronger if:
The phenomenon of spontaneous recovery provides support for the idea that:
Chloe could not remember the name of the husband of a very important client. So, Chloe began reciting the alphabet until a letter triggered her memory, and she could remember the name. The letter of the alphabet:
Janette was absolutely certain that she knew the name of the fundamentalist religious group that was involved in the standoff with the FBI in Waco, Texas, almost two decades ago, but she could not think of the name of the group. This is an example of:
While trying to recall a list of items in correct order, the tendency to remember the first items in the list is called _____ while the tendency to remember the last items in the list is called _____.
Following the death of his father, Scott was extremely despondent for several weeks. During this time, Scott seemed to dwell on other unpleasant memories and other sad experiences in his life. Scott's recall of other sad memories is an example of:
How are flashbulb memories different from ordinary memories?
Researchers William Marmie and Alice Healy (2004) asked participants to study an unfamiliar coin for short periods of time, ranging from 15 seconds to 60 seconds. The results showed that participants were better able to remember details of the unfamiliar coin than the familiar U.S. penny. This finding confirmed that one of the most common reasons for forgetting is:
After switching departments at work and getting a new phone number, Anne found that it was harder to remember her previous department's phone number. Anne was experiencing _____, which occurs when forming a new memory makes it harder to recall a previous memory.
_____ is due to conscious deliberate forgetting as _____ is due to unconscious forgetting.
Which psychologist trained a rat to run a maze, then tried to identify the location of the memory by removing a tiny portion of the rat's brain?
In psychology, the term conditioning refers to:
According to the discussion in your text, why did Karl Lashley fail to find evidence for the specific location of the engram?
When the patient known for years as H.M. was a young man, doctors surgically removed his _____ in an attempt to treat his epileptic seizures.
Studies with the patient known for years as H.M. and with amnesia patients who have sustained similar brain damage seem to suggest that:
During an intense tennis game, Robert fell backward, sustaining a concussion when his head hit the cement surface. Later, in the emergency room, Robert couldn't remember falling or who was ahead in the tennis game. The loss of his memories for that information occurred because the concussion:
After establishing a classically conditioned response to a tone, the experimenter then set up a second trial using a new conditioned stimulus, a red light. He repeatedly paired the new conditioned stimulus (the red light) with the conditioned stimulus from the first trial (the tone). This procedure resulted in the conditioned response being elicited by the red light alone, even though it had never been paired with the unconditioned stimulus. The experimenter has demonstrated:
The early “school” or approach to psychology called behaviorism emphasized which of the following ideas?
What was the unconditioned response (UCR) in Watson and Rayner's famous “Little Albert” study?
A psychological and/or physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug is called:
In Pavlov's original experiments, dogs were classically conditioned to respond to the ringing of a bell with salivation. According to Robert Rescorla, what had the dogs learned?
Ever since she foolishly drank too much beer at a rock concert and vomited all over her boyfriend, Sharon becomes nauseous at the smell or taste of beer. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is _____ and the conditioned response is _____.
CS = beer
CR = nauseous
The respect of your peers, the approval of your instructors or managers, a smile, a touch, or a nod of recognition can all be possible examples of:
After getting cactus needles stuck in her hand, 2-year-old Rachel no longer touches cactus plants. Using operant conditioning terms, this is an example of:
Terry wants his young daughter, Lauren, to help him with the housework, so he tells her that she can play on his computer as soon as she finishes doing the dinner dishes and putting away the clean laundry. Terry is using a more preferred activity to reinforce a less preferred activity. According to the In Focus box “Changing the Behavior of Others,” this behavioral strategy is called:
Which of the following statements best captures the essence of Thorndike's law of effect?
A rat in a Skinner box is reinforced for the first bar press it makes after one minute has elapsed. The rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
If exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior, the response of passivity is termed:
Unbeknownst to the rest of the world, Roger was wearing green underwear when he aced his calculus test at the beginning of the semester. Ever since, Roger always wears green underwear on test days in his college classes. In operant conditioning terms, Roger's superstitious behavior is the result of:
Martina is an animal trainer at Sea World. To teach a new dolphin to jump through a hoop high above the water, Martina first reinforces the dolphin for approaching the hoop while it is under the water. Then, she reinforces the dolphin for swimming through the hoop under water. Gradually raising the hoop, Martina progressively reinforces each small step toward the goal behavior. Martina is using the process of _____ to train the dolphin.
One of Tolman's classic research studies involved three groups of rats running mazes for several days. The rats in Group 1 received a food reward at the end of the maze every time they ran the maze. The rats in Group 2 never received a food reward in the maze. In contrast, the rats in Group 3 did not receive a food reward at the end of the maze until the eleventh day of the study. What behavior did the rats in Group 2 and Group 3 display on day 12?
After dogs have experienced inescapable shocks, they are placed in a shuttlebox in which they can easily jump over a barrier from one side of the shuttlebox to the other. If the dogs have developed learned helplessness, they would most likely respond to another shock by:
Animal trainers Keller and Marian Breland tried to train a raccoon to pick up two coins and deposit them in a metal box. However, instead of dropping the coins in the box, the raccoon would rub the coins together, much as raccoons do with their food in the wild. This tendency of the raccoon to revert to its natural behavior patterns is termed:
According to Bandura, what four cognitive processes are necessary for imitation of behavior that has been only observed?
Jake is a recovering alcoholic. He has not had adrink of alcohol in over 6 months. One of the strategies that Jake has used toremain abstinent has been to stay away from bars, avoid parties in whichalcohol is served, and even find new friends who do not drink alcohol. Jake isovercoming the short-term reinforcement he associated with alcohol use by usingwhich strategy?
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