the entire way of life of a group of people (both material and symbolic elements) that acts as a lens through which one views the world and is passed from one generation to the next. it varies from group to group, and is the human equivalent of animal instinct.
learned; second nature
culture is something that is _________________; it may seem to us to be "______________ _____________", but it only seems this way because we learn it so slowly and incrementally--we are unaware of the process.
sociologists mainly focus on our culture, through ________________, ___________ __________, __________________, and _______________ _____________, as well as by the research methods.
the principle of using one's own culture as a means or standard by which to evaluate another group or individual, leading to the view that cultures other than one's own are abnormal. (there is nothing more inherently better about ours).
the principle of understanding other cultures on their own terms, rather than judging or evaluation according to one's own culture. (this helps us place different values, beliefs, norms, and practices within their own cultural context).
the objects associated with a cultural group, such as tools, machines, utensils, buildings, and artwork: any physical object which we give social meaning (what they hold dear gives us great insight into their culture).
the ideas associated with a cultural group, including ways of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions) and ways of behaving (norms, interactions, and communications). (can be very specific or very broad).
3 forms of communication
signs, gestures, and language.
a symbol that stands for or conveys and idea (traffic signal, price tag, product logo, etc). numbers & letters are the most common signs. some we have learned over time & others are new & we have to learn. some may be universal, some are regional.
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate w/o words; actions w/ symbolic meaning (clapping, nodding, smiling) aka: body language/nonverbal communication. every culture has its own & ours can be offensive if used in another culture.
a system of communication using vocal sounds/gestures/written symbols; the basis of symbolic culture & the primary means through which we communicate w/ one another & perpetuate our culture. is present in all societies.
what language does for our society
is humanly universal & is 1 o the most complex, fluid, & creative symbolic systems: letters are combine to form words/words to form sentences/etc. it allows us to convey abstract concepts & pass them along from generation to generation.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (principle of linguistic relativity)
the idea that language structures thought & that ways of looking @ the world are embedded in language; because the Hopi people didn't have words for past, present, & future, S-W believed they didn't see time like we do; not true.
how language influences reality
words have meaning. when we label someone a word they become that word to us, & if we didn't have words, we wouldn't have predetermined thoughts about people, leaving our classification systems useless & who we hold with high esteem to be no one.
ideas ~ what is desirable or contemptible & right or wrong in a particular group. articulate the essence of everything that a cultural group cherishes & honors (equality, individual freedoms) (society doesn't always agree which they should practice).
Durkheim (structural functionalists) on Values
stressed the strength of shared values and their role in regulating the behavior of society's members.
rules or guidelines regarding what kinds of behaviors are acceptable and appropriate w/i a culture (2 types), (specific to a culture, time period, and situation: at certain times violations can be tolerated, Mardi Gras).
(officially codified), provides an explicit statement about what is permissible and what is illegal in a given society (despite the relative authority of formal norms, they are not always followed).
implicit and unspoken, are so much a part of our assumptions about life that they are embedded in our consciousness, and we often realize them when they're broken.
loosely enforced norms involving common customs, practices, or procedures that ensure smooth social interaction and acceptance (standards of dress/rules of etiquette: not very dangerous if broken).
norms that carry great moral significance; are closely related to the core values of a cultural group, and often involves severe repercussions for violators (are very expected to conform, theft/rape/murder)
norms ingrained so deeply that even thinking about violating it evokes strong feelings of disgust, horror, or revulsion (cannibalism/incest).
positive or negative reactions to the ways that people follow or disobey norms, including rewards for conformity and punishments for norm violations. (2 types)
express approval and may come in the form of a handshake or a smile, praise, or perhaps and award.
express disapproval and may come in the form of a frown, harsh words, or perhaps a fine and incarceration.
the formal and informal mechanisms used to increase conformity to values and norms and thus increase social cohesion (government/police/school administrators/parents)
a police that values diverse racial, ethnic, national, and linguistic backgrounds and so encourages the retention of cultural differences w/i society rather than assimilation.
the values, norms, and practices of the group within society that is most powerful (in terms of wealth, prestige, status, influence, etc.) (the other is seen as the "alternative" or minority view). can produce cultural hegemony.
term developed by Antonio Gramsci to describe the cultural aspects of social control, whereby the ideas of the dominant social group are accepted by all of society.
a group w/i society that is different by its distinctive values, norms, & lifestyle (a social world that has a distinctive way of life including its own set of values/norms/practices/beliefs, but exist harmoniously w/i the mainstream culture.
a group w/i society that openly rejects &/or actively opposes society's values & norms (live outside society, practicing alternative lifestyle, usually violent and cause culture wars over which values and norms should be upheld).
clashes w/i mainstream society over the values and norms that should be upheld (mainly over values and morality and the solutions to social problems).
the norms, values, and patterns of behavior that members of a society believe should be observed in principle (that innovative thinking, dedication, skill, and hard work should determine success, but it's not always the case).
the norms, values, and patterns of behavior that actually exist w/i a society (which may or may not correspond to the society's ideals).
usually contrasted w/ the high culture of elite groups; forms of cultural expression usually associated w/ the masses, consumer goods, & commercial products. (multiple, with its own set of hierarchies; P. Diddy, Beyonce, etc).
those forms of cultural expression usually associated w/ the elite or dominant classes.(multiple, with its own set of hierarchies; Beethoven, the Senate, etc.)
groups of people who share similar artistic, literary, media, recreational, & intellectual interests.
ares of culture that share similar aesthetics and standards of taste--people who share the same tastes will also usually move in the same cultural circles as well.
having many possible meanings or interpretations; used to describe how any cultural product is subject to multiple interpretations and hence has many possible meanings (person A may enjoy the Simpson's but person B may hate the Simpson's).
group of people dedicated to the consumption & interpretation of a particular cultural product & who create a collective social meaning for the product (movie w/ friends; together makes it a collective influence on each's cultural experience).
the group composed of everyone involved in the creation, distribution, and consumption of any cultural product (the Elvis example).
the leading reason for material culture changes; material artifacts & the knowledge required to use them; provides the basis & structure through which culture is spread to members of a social group.
the notion that developments in material culture provide the primary driving forces behind social organization & social change (technology is defining who we b/co--how we think/feel/act in the world; replacing old values w/ cultural ideals).
the dissemination of beliefs and practices from one group to another; from more developed to less developed; aided by new forms of transportation and communication.
the process by which cultures that were once distinct b/co increasingly similar (unique mom&pop stores are now wal-marts/japanese anime on america)
the imposition of once culture's beliefs, practices, and artifacts on another culture through mass media and consumer products; some cultures consider our messages dangerous and forbid them, bc of our fixation on sex, violence, and nudity.
anti-Americanism/anti-semitism toward America
humans enjoy sick shit (& we have freedom of speech) so Americans enjoy shit; it broadcasts to other nations & unlike our sick culture, they have standards & our media taints their youth like rabies so they hate us. i would too. jus sayin.
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