Research method that studies children who were adopted and reared completely apart from their parents, thereby eliminating the influence of being raised by disordered parents.
An experimental study of a phenomenon different from but related to the actual interests of the investigator; for example, animal research used to study human disorders, or research on mild symptoms used as a bridge to clinical disorders.
The collection of historical or biographical information on a single individual, often including experiences in therapy.
The degree to which effect size is large enough to be meaningful in predicting or treating a clinical disorder.
As applied in behavior genetics, the similarity in psychiatric diagnosis or in other traits withing a pair of twins.
Those for whom the active condition of the independent variable is not administered, thus forming a baseline against which the effects of the active condition of the independent variable can be evaluated.
The tendency for two variables, such as height and weight, to covary.
A statistic ranging in value from -1.00 to +1.00 that measures the degree to which two variables are related. The sign indicates whether the relationship is positive or negative, and the magnitude indicates the strength of the relationship.
The research strategy used to establish whether two or more variables are related without manipulating the independent variable. Relationships may be positive or negative.
Research method that studies offspring who were adopted and reared completely apart from their biological parents, where the adoptive parent has a particular disorder but the biological parent does not, thereby introducing the influence of nurture.
Studies in which different age groups are compared at the same time.
In is psychological experiment, the behavior that is measured and is expected to change with manipulation of the independent variable.
A difficulty that arises in the correlational method of research when it is known that two variables are related but it is unclear which is causing the other.
dizygotic (DZ) twins
Birth partners who developed from separate fertilized eggs and who are only 50% alike genetically, just as siblings born from different pregnancies involving the same father; also called fraternal twins.
A method for reducing the biasing effects of the expectations of research participant and experimenter; neither is allowed to know whether the independent variable of the experiment is being applied to the participant.
The study of the frequency and distribution of illness in a population.
The most powerful research technique for determining causal relationships; involves the manipulation of an independent variable, measurement of a dependent variable, and the random assignment of participants.
A statistically significant difference between two groups experiencing different manipulations of the independent variable.
The extent to which the results of a study can be considered generalizable.
A research strategy in behavior genetics in which the frequency of a trait or of abnormal behavior is determined in relatives who have varying percentages of shared genetic background.
A DNA polymorphism linked to a gene critical to the inheritance of a particular form of psychopathology.
A research technique involving the intensive examination of people, such as the offspring of people with schizophrenia, who have a high probability of later developing a disorder.
Specific expectation or prediction about what should occur or be found if a theory is true or valid.
In epidemiological studies of a particular disorder, the rate at which new cases occur in a given place at a given time.
In a psychological experiment, the factor, experience, or treatment that is under the control of the experimenter and that is expected to have an effect on participants as assessed by changes in the dependent variable.
index cases (probands)
The person who in a genetic investigation bears the diagnosis or trait the investigator is interested.
The extent to which results can be confidently attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable.
A molecular genetic technique wherein occurrence of a disorder in a family is evaluated in parallel with inheritance of a known genetic (DNA) marker.
Investigation that collects information on the same individuals repeatedly over time, perhaps over many years, in an effort to determine how phenomena change.
A quantitative method of analyzing the results of a set of studies on a topic, by standardizing the results
monozygotic (MZ) twins
Genetically identical twins who fave developed from a single fertilized egg.
Any inactive therapy or chemical agent, or any attribute or component of such a therapy or chemical, that affects a person's behavior for reasons related to his or her expectation of change.
The action of a drug or psychological treatment that is not attributable to any specific operations of the agent. For example, a tranquilizer can reduce anxiety both because of its special biochemical action and because the recipient expects relief.
In epidemiological studies of a disorder, the percentage of a population that has the disorder at a given time.
A method of assigning people to groups by chance (e.g., using a flip of a coin). The procedure helps to ensure that groups are comparable before the experimental manipulation begins.
reversal (ABAB) designs
An experimental design in which behavior is measured during a baseline period (A), a period when a treatment is introduced (B), the reinstatement of the conditions that prevailed in the baseline period (A), and a reintroduction of the treatment (B).
A condition or variable that increases the likelihood of developing a disorder
single-subject experimental design
A design for an experiment conducted with a single subject. Typically, behavior is measured within a baseline condition, then during an experimental or treatment condition, and finally within the baseline condition again.
A result that has low probability of having occurred by chance alone and is by convention regarded as important.
A formally stated and coherent set of propositions that explain and logically order a range of phenomena, generating testable predictions or hypotheses.
The difficulty in the correlational method of research whereby the relationship between two variables may be attributable to a third factor.
Research strategy in behavior genetics in which concordance rates of monozygotic and dizygotic twins are compared.
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