draws energy not from ATP, but from an electrochemical gradient of a solute such as a gradient of Na+, ATP is required but it is not the immediate source of energy—it is employed to create an electrochemical gradient
the difference in osmotic pressure that arises between two solutions on either side of the cell membrane or epithelium because the two solutions differ in their concentrations of nonpermeating protein solutes. Because the solutes can’t cross the membrane, they are a “fixed” difference in osmotic pressure between solutions
is solution A had a lower osmotic pressure than solution B, A is HYPOsmotic
: is solution B has a higher osmotic pressure than solution A, B is HYPERosmotic
specific water channel proteins that provide an avenue for water.
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