is defined as the process and activities people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluation, and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires.
some are long, detailed processes.
are incidental and result from little more than seeing a product prominently displayed at a discount price in a store.
the consumer decision making process 5 steps
psychological process with consumer making process
problem recognition (definition) first step
occurs when the consumer perceives a need and becomes motivated to solve the problem
is caused by a difference between the consumer's ideal state and actual state
sources of problem recognition
out of stock
new needs/wants- a desire for something one does not have
marketer-induced problem recognition
motives (motivation first stage)
those factors that compel a consumer to take a particular action
must meet lowest level before going to the next
psychoanalytic theory Frued
although his work dealt with the structure and development of personality freud also studied the underlying motivations for human behavior
this theory was applied to the study of consumer behavior by marketeers interested in probing deeply rooted motives that may underlie purchase decisions
ernest dichter and james vicary- first to conduct this type of research in marketing.
the work of these researches and others who continue to use this approach assumed the title of motivation research
information search 2 parts--- second stage
internal search- the initial search effort often consists of an attempt to scan information stored in memory to recall past experiences and knowledge regarding various purchase alternatives
external search- if internal search does not yield enough information the consumer will seek additional information from an external search.
Perception (2nd stage)
the process by which an individual receives, selects, organizes, and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world
it is an individual process that depends on internal factors such as personal beliefs, experiences, needs, moods, and expectations.
Perception involves three distinct processes
sensation- the immediate, direct response of the sense (taste, smell ect)
selecting information- all dependent on the person
interpreting the information- once a consumer selects and attends to a stimulus, the perceptual process focuses on organizing categorizing and interpreting the incoming information
filtering through the marketing stimuli
types of selective exposure
selective exposure- occurs as consumer choose whether or not to make themselves available to information....aka change channel
selective attention- occurs when the consumer chooses to focus attention on certain stimuli while excluding others.
selective comprehension- interpreting info on the basis of their own attitudes
selective retention- do not remember all the info they see hear ect
such as symbols, rhymes, association, and images that assist in the learning and memory process are helpful
refers to the ability to perceive a stimulus that is below the level of conscious awareness. psychologists generally agree it is possible to perceive things without being consciously aware of them
alternative evaluation 3rd step
stage the consumer compares the various brands or products and services he has identified as being capable of solving the consumption problem and satisfying the needs or motives that initiated the decision process
the various brands identified as purchase options to be considered during the alternative evaluation process
generally only a subset of all the brands which the consumer is aware.
to get in this set marketers use advertising to create top-ofmind awareness
the dimensions or attributes of a product or service that are used to compare different alternatives.
consequences and outcomes via consumers
marketers view these are bundles of attributes
there are two types of consequences they are
functional- concrete outcomes of product or services usage that are tangible and directly experienced by consumers
psychosocial- are abstract outcomes that are more intangible subjective and personal...aka will it make me look good
Attitudes (3rd aspect)
Attitudes are learned predispositions to respond to an object and are some of the most heavily studied concepts in consumer behavior
Very important to marketers!
Multiattribute attitude models
Views an attitude object as possessing a number of attributes that provide the basis on which consumers form their attitudes.
consumers have beliefs about specific brand attributes and attach different levels of importance to these attributes
beliefs concerning specific attributes or consequences that are activated and form the basis of an attitude
varies among different marketing segments
integration process 4th stage in brain dawg
way consumers combine information about the characteristics of brands to arrive at a purchase decision
the way product knowledge, meanings, and beliefs are combined to evaluate two or more alternatives
simplified decision rule
ex- price-based...which one is cheaper
affect referral decisions rule
heuristic where consumers make a selections on the basis of an overall impression or summary evaluation of the various alternatives under consideration
purchase decision 4th stage....almost done!
not the same as an actual purchase
the consumer must stop searching for an evaluating information bout alternatives brands in the evoked set and make a decisions
predisposition to buy a certain brand
generally based on a matching of purchase motives with attributes or characteristics of brands under consideration
a preference for a particular brand that results in its repeated purchase
postpurchase evaluation 5th and last stage
after using the product or service, the consumer compares the level of performance with expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied
a feeling of psychological tension or postpurchase doubt that a consumer experience after making a difficult purchase choce
consumer learning- 2 approaches (5th and last cognitive stage)
the process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience they apply to future related behavior
2 approaches behavioral approach cognitive learning theory
behavioral learning theory
emphasize the role of exernal, environmental stimuli in causing behavior; minimize the significance of internal psychological process
based on the stimulus-response orientation (S-R) learning occurs to stimuli in the environment
2 types classical and operant
learning is an associative process with a already exiting relationship between a stimulus and a response. PAVLOV and DOG unconditioned stimulus- food unconditioned response- salivation conditioned stimulus- bell conditioned response- salivation after bell
2 things are important in this process- contiguity and repetition
the individual must actively operate or act on some aspect of the environment for learning to occur
also referred to as instrumental conditioning
reward or favorable consequence associatated with a particular response, is an important element of instrumental conditioning
behavior that is reinforced strengthens the bond between a stimulus and a response
schedules of reinforcement
learning occurs most rapidly under continuous reinforcement schedule every response is rewareded but the behavior is liekly to cease when the reinforcement stops
the reinforcement of successive acts that lead to a desired behavior pattern or repsonse
cognitive learning theory
has dominated the field of consumer behavior in recent years
environmental influence on consumer behavior
the broadest and most abstract of the external factors that influence consumer behavior
also said to be the complexity of learned meaning, values, norms, and customs shared by members of a society in all aspects of their lives, including their consumption behavior
a smaller group within a culture. may be based on age, geographic, religious, racial nd or ethnic differences
three largest racial groups in USA are--black, hispanic and asian
refers to relatively homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar lifestyles, value, norms. interest and behaviors can be grouped
in USA they are based on occupational status, educational attainment and income
a group presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her judgments, opinions and actions
aspirational reference groups disassociative groups
family is a reference group!!
the specific situation in which consumers plan to use the product or brand directly affects their perceptions, preferences, and purchasing behavior
3 types specific usage situation purchase situation communication situation
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