The branch of neuroscience concrened with the fundamental chemical processes of the nervous system
Also called psychopharmacology. The scientific field concerned with the discovery and study of compounds that selectively affect the functioning of the nervous system
A NT based on modifications of a single amino acid nucleus, such as acetylcholine, serotonin, or dopamine
Amino Acid Neurotransmitter
A NT that is itself an amino acid, such as GABA, glycine, or glutamate
A NT consisting of a short chain of amino acids
A soluble gas, such as nitric oxide or carbon monoxide that is produced and released by a nueron to alter the functioning on another neuron
Also called receptor molecule. A protein that captures and reacts to molecules of a transmitter or hormone
A receptor protein that includes an ion channel that is opened when the receptor is bound by an agonist
A type of transmitter receptor that does not contain an ion channel, but may, when activated, use a G protein system to open a nearby ion channel.
Any type of receptor having functional characteristics that distinguish it from other types of receptors for the same NT
A substance that binds to receptor molecules, such as those at the surgace of the cell
A molecule, usually a drug, that binds a receptor molecule and initiates a response like that of another molecule, usually a NT.
A molecule, usually a drug, that interferes with or prevents the action of a transmitter.
A substance that binds to a receptor and causes it to do the opposite of what the naturally occurring transmitter does.
Produced inside the body
Arising from outside the body
Also called co-release. Here, the appearance of more than one NT in a given presynaptic terminal.
An amine transmitter that stimulates muscle contraction, but is also found throughout the brain.
Referring to cells that use ACh as their synaptic transmitter
Referring to cholinergic receptors that respond to nicotine as well as to ACh
Referring to cholinergic receptors that respond to the chemical muscarine as well as to ACh
A class of monoamines that serve as NTs, including dopamine and norepinephrine.
A class of monoamines that serve as NTs, including serotonin and melatonin
A monoamine transmitter found in the midbrain-especially the substantia nigra-and basal forebrain.
A set of dopaminergenic axons arising from the midbrain and innervating the basal ganglia, including those from the substantia nigra to the striatum.
A set of dopaminergenic axons arising in the midbrain and innervating the limbic system and cortex
A midbrain structure that provides dopaminergic projections to areas of the forebrain, especially the basal ganglia.
The caudate nucleus and putamen together
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA)
A portion of the midbrain that projects dopaminergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens.
Also called noradrenaline. A synaptic transmitter that is produced mainly in brainstemn nuclei.
A small nucleus in the brainstem whose neurons produce norepinephrine and modulate large areas of the forebrain.
Referring to systems using norepinephrine as a transmitter
A synaptic transmitter that is produced in the raphe nuclei and is active in structures throughout the cerebral hemispheres.
Referring to neurons that use serotonin as their synaptic transmitter
A string of nuclei in the midline of the midbrain and brainstem that contain most of the serotonergic neurons of the brain.
One of the midbrain nuclei that give rise to most of the serotonergic projections of the brain.
An amino acid transmitter. the most common excitatory transmitter
An amino acid transmitter that is excitatory at many synapses
Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
A widely distributed amino-acid transmitter, and the main inhibitory transmitter in the mammalian nervous system.
An amino acid transmitter, often inhibitory.
Referring to cells that use glutamate as their synaptic transmitter
The property by which neurons die when overstimulated, as with large amounts of glutamate.
A type of endogenous peptide that mimics the effects of morphine in binding to opioid receptors and producing marked analgesia and reward.
Nitric Oxide (NO)
A soluble gas that serves as a retrograde gas NT in the nervous system.
A NT that diffuses from the postsynaptic neuron back to the presynaptic neuron
The propensity of molecules of a drug (or other ligand) to bind to their corresponding receptors. Drugs with high affinity for their receptors are effective even at low doses.
Efficacy or Intrinsic Activity
The extent to which a drug activates a response when it binds to a receptor
Partial Agonist or Partial Antagonist
A drug that, when bound to a receptor, has less effect than the endogenous ligand would.
A substance that directly competes with the endogenous ligand for binding to a receptor molecule
A drug that affects a transmitter receptor while binding at a site other than that bound by the endogenous ligand.
A portion of a receptor that, when bound by a compound, alters the receptor's response to its transmitter.
Dose-response Curve (DRC)
A formal plot of a drug's effects (on the y-axis) versus the does given (on the x-axis)
Collective name for the factors that affect the relationship between a drug and its target receptors, such as affinity and efficacy.
A condition in which, with repeated exposure to a drug, and individual becomes less responsive to a constant dose.
The form of drug tolerance that arises when the metabolic machinery of the body becomes more efficient at clearing the drug, as a consequence of repeated exposure.
Decreased responding to a drug after repeated exposures, generally as a consequence of up or down regulation of receptors.
A compensatory reduction in receptor availability at the synapses of a neuron
A compensatory increase in receptor availability at the synapses of a neuron
A condition in which the development of tolerance for an administered drug causes an individual to develop tolerance for another drug.
An uncomfortable symptom that arises when a person stops taking a drug that he or she has used frequently, especially at high doses.
A process in which the body shows an enhanced response to a given drug after repeated doses
Referring to a substance, usually a drug, that is present in the body in a form that is able to interact with physiological mechanisms
The process in which enzymes convert a drug into a metabolite that is itself active, possibly in ways that are substantially different from the actions of the original substance.
Collective name for all the factors that affect the movement of a drug into, through, and out of the body.
The mechanisms that make the movement of substances from capillaries into brain cells more difficult than exchanges in other body organs. Thus affording the brain greater protection from exposure to some substances found in the blood.
A substance that influences the activity of synaptic transmitters
A stimulant compound found in coffee, cacao, and other plants.
In the context of neural transmission, a neuromodulator that alters synaptic activity.
A receptor for a synaptic transmitter that is located in the presynaptic membrane and tells the axon terminal how much transmitter has been released.
A class of drugs that alleviate schizophrenia
A class of antipsychotic drugs, traditionally dopamine receptor blockers
A major class of antischizophrenic drugs that share an antagonist activity at dopamine D2 receptors.
A class of antischizophrenic drugs that have actions other than the dopamine D2 receptor antagonism that characterizes the typical neuroleptics
A class of drugs that relieve the symptoms of depression
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI or MAO Inhibtor)
An antidepressant drug that blocks the breakdown of monoamine NTs by the enzyme monoamine oxidase, resulting in an accumulation of monoamine transmitters in synapses.
A class of drugs that act by increasing the synaptic accumulation of serotonin and norepinephrine.
A heterogenous extract of the seedpod juice of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum
An opiate compound derived from the poppy flower.
Referring to painkilling properties
Diacetylemorphine, an artificially modified, very potent form of morphine.
A receptor that respons to endogenous and/or exogenous opiates
The neuronal body-rich region of the midbrain surrounding the cerebral aqueduct that connects the 3rd and 4th ventricles
A family of peptide transmitters that have been called the body's own narcotics, The three kinds are enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins.
One of three kinds of endogenous opioids
One of three kinds of endogenous opiates
One of three kinds of endogenous opiates
A dried preparation of the Cannabis sativa plant, usually smoked to obtain THC
The major active ingredient in marijuana
An endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors, thus an analog or marijuana that is produced by the brain
An endogenous substance that binds the cannabinoid receptor molecule
A compound found in plants, including tobacco, that acts as an agonist on a large class of cholinergic receptors
A drug of abuse, derived from the coca plant, that acts by potentiating catecholamine stimulation.
Dependence for emergent drug effects that occur only when two drugs are taken simultaneously
A molecule that resembles the structure of catecholamine transmitters and enhances their activity.
Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)
A peptide produced in the brain when an animal is injected with either coacaine or amphetamine. Associated with the appetite control circuitry of the hypothalamus.
A class of drugs that alter senseory perception and produce peculiar experiences
Also called acid. Lysergic acid diethylamide, a hallucinogenic drug.
Also called angel dust. An anesthetic agent that is also a psychedelic drug.
A type of drug that produces a dreamlike state in which consciousness is partly separated from sensory inputs.
A dissociative anesthetic drug that acts as an NMDA receptor antagonist
Also called Ecstasy. A drug of abuse, 3, 44-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
A region of the forebrain that receives dopaminergic innervation from the ventral tegmental area.
Cue-Induced Drug Use
An increased likelihood to use a drug (especially an addictive drug) because of the presence of environmental stimuli that were present during previous use of the same drug.
Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK)
An important intracellular signal transduction system that can be activated by many different events that affect the cell surface.
A group of proteins expressed in the lateral hypothalamus that trigger feeding and have been implicated in narcolepsy.
Want to see the other 106 Flashcards in Chapter 4?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!