Chapter 4 The Visual Elements Chapter 4: The Visual Elements Line -Contour and Outline contour lines- the perceived edges or a three-dimensional form such as the human body. Contour lines are lines used to indicate these perceived edges in two-dimensional art. - Direction and Movement - Implied Lines - Shape and Mass mass- three-dimensional form, often implying bulk, density, and weight. figure- in two- dimensional images, the relationship between a shape we perceive as dominant and the background shape we perceive it against. - Implied Shapes Light -Implied Light: Modeling Mass in Two Dimensions model- three-dimensional appearance values- shades of light and dark chiaroscuro- Italian for light/dark hatching- areas of closely spaced parallel lines cross-hatching- closely spaced parallel lines that mix optically to suggest value. Color -Color Theory refracted- the bending of a ray of light, for example when it passes through a prism. color wheel- arrangement of red-violet colors in a circle. primary colors- red, yellow, and blue secondary colors- orange, green, and violet tertiary colors- the products of a primary color and an adjacent secondary color. warm colors- red-orange (associated with sunlight and firelight) cool colors- blue-green (associated with sky and water) -Color Properties hue- the name of the color according to the categories of the color wheel tint- a color lighter than the hue?s normal value shade- a color darker that the hue?s normal value Intensity- (chroma, saturation) refers to the relative purity of a color -Light and Pigment -Color Harmonies monochromatic- harmonies that are composed of variations on the same hue, often with different intensity. complementary- harmonies involve colors directly opposite one another on the color wheel. Analogous -harmonies combine colors adjacent to one another on the color wheel. triadic- harmonies are composed of any three colors equidistant from each other on the color wheel. restricted palette- (open palette) artists limit themselves to a few pigments and their mixtures, tints, and shades. -Optical Effects of Color simultaneous contrast- where complimentary colors appear more intense when placed side by side afterimage- simultaneous contrast optical color mixture- when small patches of different colors are close together, the eye may blend them together to produce a new color. pointillism- tiny dots of pure color next to each other -Emotional Effects of Color Texture and Pattern -Actual Texture - Visual Texture -Pattern Space - Three-Dimensional Space -Implied Space: Suggesting Dept in Two Dimensions picture plane literal surface -Linear Perspective + forms seem to diminish in size as they recede from us. + parallel lines receeding into the distance seem to converge, until they meet at a point on the horizon line where they disappear. This point = vanishing point - Foreshortening - Atmospheric Perspective - Isometric Perspective Time an Motion futurism- art movement founded in Italy in 1909 and lasting only a few years. Futurism concentrated on the dynamic quality of modern technological life, emphasizing speed and movement. kinetic- art that moves
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