___ is pain that is directly related to tissue injury and resolves when tissue heals
__ is a pain state (generally severe) for which there is no cure possible even after accepted medical evaluation and treatments have been evaluated.
Sensation of pain from a stimulus that normally does not produce pain (i.e. light touch)
The physiological process related to pain perception are described as___. What are the four physiological processes involved in nociception?
nociception transduction, transmission, perception, and modulation
_____ are overrepresented in a number of painful disorders, while ____ are more vulnerable to pain related to their occupation..
Women: disorders Men: occupation
TF: A client may be reluctant to report pain because of unwillingness to trouble staff whi are perceived as busy. Also they may not want to be labeled a complainer
TF: It is necessary to assess the client's suicide risk if they have chronic pain by asking "Do you ever feel so bad that you want to die?"
Why are pain diaries important in regards to pain management?
Pain diaries have been shown to IMPROVE pain management
A condition that results from the under-treatment of pain where the client may become so focused on obtaining meds for pain relief that they become angry and demanding, may "clock watch", and may otherwise seem inappropriately "drug seeking"
The term ____ refers to the relative potency of various opioid analgesics compared to a standard dose of parenteral morphine (gold standard opioid)
A chemical interruption of a nerve pathway, effected by injecting a local anesthetic into the nerve.
An unpleasant abnormal sensation. It mimics or imitates the pathology of a central neuropathic pain disorder, such as pain that follows a stroke or spinal cord injury.
What is preemptive analgesia?
The administration of analgesics before surgery to decrease or relieve pain after surgery
How long should a person stop taking aspirin prior to a surgical procedure?
TF: Regular daily use of NSAIDs is much safer than taking opioids
false. side effects from NSAIDs are considerably more severe and life threatening
TF: It is safe to administer an opioid and a non-opioid at the same time.
What are the three primary types of opioids? What type is morphine?
full agonists, mixed agonists-antagpnists, partial agonists Morphine is a full agonist, the "gold standard" opioid
Describe the sedation scale:
S = sleep, easy to arouse 1 = awake and alert 2 = slightly drowsy, easily aroused 3 = frequently drowsy, arousable, drifts off to sleep during conversation 4 = somnolent, minimal or no response to physical stimulation
When narcotic analgesics are administered, what are some nursing responsibilities?
A. Delegate the task of keeping track of the total amount of acetaminophen or aspirin the client is receiving when taking a combination drug. (false, nurse should do this) B. assess bowel function to prevent diarrhea (false, constipation) C. assess pain prior to and 30 minutes after administration (false) D. asses pain prior to and 60 minutes after administration
TF: Under-treatment of pain is a serious health care problem, because it can cause anxiety, fear, and depression.
Poorly managed acute pain may lead to _______ syndrome.
The conversion of painful stimuli to an electrical impulse through peripheral nerve fibers (nociceptors).
____ occurs as the electrical impulse travels along the nerve fibers and is regulated by neurotransmitters.
Which statement is correct? (bold is false)
A. Histamine, serotonin, and Substance P increase pain and cause inflammatory response B. bradykinin, prostaglandins, and histamine increase pain and cause inflammatory response C. serotonin, endorphins, and substance P decrease pain, produce analgesia D. Histamine, serotonin, and endorphins decrease pain, produce analgesia
_____ pain arises from damage to or inflammation of tissues other than that of the peripheral and CNS / While _____ pain arises from abnormal or damaged pain nerves.
Nociceptive pain / neuropathic pain
What are the 3 classes of analgesics?
non-opioids, opioids, and adjuvants
A client with a healthy live should not take more than __ grams of acetaminophen a day
4 grams a day
What are signs of salicylism (aspirin poisoning)
tinnitus, vertigo, decrease hearing acuity
TF: In a patient with respiratory distress as an adverse effect of opioid use, it may be necessary to slowly administer diluted naloxone (Narcan) as prescribed to reverse opioid effects.
Anticonvulsants, antianxiety, tricyclic antideppresants, antihistamine, glucocorticoids, and antiemetics are examples of what class of analgesics?
What are two commonly used patient - controlled analgesic (PCA) opioids?