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5.1-1. According to the text, the term "stress" will be used to refer to
c. the effects of external stressors within the organism.
5.1-3. Distress is
5.1-5. What do positive and negative stressors have in common?
5.1-7. Which of the following psychological disturbances does not occur in response to an identifiable experience?
5.1-8. According to your textbook, which of the following is most stressful to people and animals?
c. Uncontrollable stressors
5.1-9. Coping strategies are
5.1-10. Which of the following factors is linked to a person's ability to cope better?
5.1-11. Stress tolerance is
c. a person's ability to withstand stress without becoming seriously impaired
5.1-12. Crisis is
d. when a stressful situation overwhelms the individual.
5.1-13. Which of the following is not considered a life change?
b. being diabetic
5.1-14. What is not a key factor in making a stressor more serious?
c. its type or category
5.1-15. According to the text, a factor that does not make one stressor more serious than another includes:
c. geographic region
5.1-16. The term "crisis" refers to
a. any time when a stressful situation exceeds one's ability to cope.
5.1-17. Who is likely to have the most severe stress?
d. Josh, who has just been told he has cancer and whose wife announces she is leaving him when he tells her the news
5.1-18. What is the difference between a stressor and a crisis?
b. While all crises are stressors, not all stressors are crises.
5.1-19. The development of new methods of coping
a. may be an outcome of a crisis.
5.1-20. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale
c. is an imperfect means of quantifying the level of stress experience over a period of time.
5.1-21. A client is administered the Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Which of the following would be measured?
d. common, stressful life experiences
5.1-22. The Life Events and Difficulty Schedule
b. allows the rater to consider the person's unique circumstances.
5.1-23. Which of the following is a criticism of the life event, interview-based scales?
b. They limit the kind of events that can be reported.
5.1-24. The Life Event and Difficulty Schedule
b. allows raters to consider different circumstances around the same stressor.
5.1-25. Which of the following will lessen the impact of a stressful situation?
c. preparing for the stressor
5.1-26. An individual with a high stress tolerance
a. can function well in the face of a high level of stress.
5.1-27. Healthy psychological and physical functioning after a potentially traumatic event is called:
5.1-28. According to your textbook, which of the following is a factor that increases resilience?
b. being older
5.1-29. Which of the following parts has not been linked to the stress response?
b. the cerebellum
5.1-30. The stress glucocorticoid that is produced in humans is called
c. prepares the body for fight or flight.
5.1-32. Which of the following statements about stress is correct?
c. some people are predisposed to respond poorly to demands.
5.1-33. What is the name of the system that is designed to mobilize resources and prepare a fight-or-flight response?
c. the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system
5.1-34. What is the term for the biological cost of adapting to stress?
a. allostatic load
5.1-35. I often find that when I am ill, I am not able to cope effectively with the normal hassles of life. I find myself becoming irritated by things that I would usually be able to ignore. Which of the following would explain this phenomenon?
a. When using resources to deal with one stressor, the ability to tolerate additional stressors may be compromised.
5.1-36. Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of the interaction between the __________________.
a. nervous system and the immune system
5.1-37. Which of the following can cause stress-induced immunosuppression?
5.1-38. Which of the following is the biological cascade that is activated with prolonged stress?
d. the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
5.1-39. B-cells are
b. cells that produce antibodies.
5.1-40. Which type of cells release interleukin?
5.1-41. Which is not a stressor linked to immunosuppression, according to the text?
5.1-42. Which cytokine has been associated with depression and caring for family members with Alzheimer's disease?
5.1-43. What is considered the “front line” of immune system defense?
5.1-44. The pituitary gland
d.is important to the release of stress hormones.
5.1-45. The field of psychoneuroimmunology
d. examines the effects of stressors on the immune system.
5.1-46. Prolonged stress leads to suppression of the immune system. What might explain the evolution of such a seemingly flawed reaction?
d. Such immune suppression might prevent the development of autoimmune illnesses.
5.1-47. Stress slows the healing of wounds by as much as ___ to ___ percent.
c. 24; 40.
5.1-48. Which of the following represents normal-range blood pressure?
5.1-49. What is a symptom of hypertension?
b. A person may show no symptoms of it.
5.1-50. Work-related stress can elevate risk of coronary heart disease by which key factors?
b. a highly demanding job and little decision-making control
5.1-51. What is Type D personality type?
c. The "distressed" type
5.1-52. What seems to be the most important component for coronary heart disease in the Type A behavior pattern?
5.1-53. Clyde is unmarried and has few friends. Why is he at greater risk for developing coronary heart disease than the general population?
b. Social isolation has been associated with increased risk of the disease.
5.1-55. In regards to stress research, a risk factor is
b. something in a person's history that makes that person more vulnerable to stress.
5.1-56. People with heart disease are ____ times more likely than healthy people to be depressed.
5.1-57. Sudden cardiac death is ______ times higher in men with high levels of anxiety.
5.1-58. Which was not an effective treatment for stress-related disorders, according to your text?
5.1-60. For an adjustment disorder, the symptoms must appear within __________
months of the stressor?
5.1-61. Although divorce is now far more acceptable than it was in previous years, why do those going through a divorce still find it extremely stressful?
d. Economic uncertainties are difficult to predict.
5.1-62. Estimates of the prevalence of PTSD
c. demonstrate that it is more commonly seen in women.
5.1-63. According to the text, PTSD:
c. has symptoms which tend to decrease with time in most people
5.1-64. A main symptom of PTSD in DSM-5 is
b. reexperiencing of the traumatic event.
5.1-65. In the DSM-5, PTSD will become a part of a new diagnostic category called ________.
b. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
5.1-66. According to DSM-5, Acute stress disorder becomes PTSD when
c. the symptoms last for more than 4 weeks.
5.1-67. Approximately ____ percent of women develop PTSD over the course of their lives.
5.1-68. According to your textbook, what percentage of Army soldiers and Marines in Iraq report that they have been attacked or ambushed?
5.1-69. What was not a result of the psychological stress following being a prisoner of war?
d. frequent alcohol or drug dependence
5.1-70. During WWII, the descriptors of the traumatic reactions seen to combat conditions
b. placed too much emphasis on physical exhaustion.
5.1-71. It is believed that the incidence of combat exhaustion during WWII has been
b. many men were treated in the field and never formally diagnosed.
5.1-72. "Combat exhaustion" is known as ________ today.
5.1-73. Why should we study the causal factors in PTSD, since we already know traumatic events cause it?
d. Because not everyone who is exposed to a trauma develops PTSD.
5.1-74. Why is there such a high likelihood of long-lasting psychological problems
resulting from active combat experiences?
c. Combat situations present highly stressful situations for which there may be no truly effective coping mechanisms.
5.1-75. Feelings of control over stressors
b. can make a difference even for victims of torture - if the person feels he or she has some control, he or she tends to be less affected by the stressor over the long term.
5.1-76. When POWs first return,
c. their relief and joy at being released often masks the trauma's effects.
5.1-77. Which is an individual risk factor for developing PTSD?
d. being neurotic
5.1-78. The impact of torture
c. can vary depending on if the torture was perceived as uncontrollable or not.
5.1-79. Having a history of psychological problems before going into combat
a. will make a soldier much more likely to develop PTSD.
5.1-80. Which of the following will lower a soldier’s risk of developing PTSD?
b. believing strongly in the goals of the combat
5.1-81. Stress-inoculation training
a. involves learning new ways to think about an anticipated threat and then applying these techniques to several different types of threats.
5.1-82. For which of the following would the use of stress-inoculation training be most effective?
a. Preparing for chemotherapy
5.1-83. Stress-inoculation training
c. is a form of cognitive preparation that can be used to minimize the impact of an anticipated threat.
5.1-84. Based on occupation, which of the following would have the lowest rates of PTSD following rescue work during a major disaster?
d. police officers removing the seriously injured from the site
5.1-85. Short-term crisis therapy
c. begins with the assumption that the affected individual was functioning well before the current crisis.
5.1-86. Arielle was in a terrible car accident in which several people were killed. A few weeks later, she began to talk about what happened. She told the story to anyone who would listen. This seems to be
a. a way to reduce anxiety and desensitize herself to the experience.
5.1-87. Following a disaster, debriefing sessions
a. provide those involved with a chance to share their feelings and concerns.
5.1-88. Which of the following would be an example of prolonged exposure?
a. Mandy visited the accident site.
5.1-89. The psychotropic medications used in the treatment of PTSD
d. treat the symptoms the client is experiencing.
5.1-90. Despite the many barriers to effectively researching the effectiveness of disaster responses, it has been found that
c. cognitive therapy reduces the PTSD symptoms of the majority of those who are treated.
5.1-91. A significant drawback of the use of medication for PTSD is
b. there is still some doubt about the extent of its effectiveness.
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