Chapter 5 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Strategies for the New Economy Adela Chen MIST2090 | Spring 2010 Looking ahead? Discuss Lab Practical next week In-class group quiz competition (Mar 18) Guest speaker on Mar 30 Mr. Philip Grossman (IHG) STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES Define and describe the 9 major e-commerce business models. Identify the differences and similarities among customers and their perception of value in B2B and B2C e-commerce. Compare and contrast developing a marketing mix in B2B and B2C e-commerce. STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES Summarize ways of moving money in e-commerce and related issues. Discuss major trends that are impacting both the e-commerce world and society in general. INTRODUCTION Electronic commerce (e-commerce) ? commerce, but it is commerce accelerated and enhanced by IT Build powerful relationships with customers Build powerful relationships with suppliers Build powerful relationships with partners INTRODUCTION You must have a clear path-to-profitability (P2P), a formal business plan that outlines key business issues such as? Customer targets Marketing strategies Operations strategies Projected income statement and balance sheet targets CHAPTER ORGANIZATION E-Commerce Business Models Learning outcome #1 Understand Your Business, Products, Services, and Customers Learning outcome #2 Find Customers and Establish Relationships Learning outcome #3 CHAPTER ORGANIZATION Move Money Easily and Securely Learning outcome #4 E-Business Trends Learning outcome #5 E-COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS B2B E-Commerce Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce ? when a business sells products and services to customers who are primarily other businesses Where all the e-commerce money is Basically, it?s about businesses doing business with other businesses Supply chain management (from Chapter 2) is a big part of B2B e-commerce B2C E-Commerce Business to Consumer (B2C) e-commerce ? when a business sells products and services to customers who are primarily individuals B2C is the glitzy e-commerce like iTunes, eBay, etc B2C is a primary focus of the later sections in this chapter C2B E-Commerce Consumer to Business (C2B) e-commerce ? when an individual sells products and services to a business True economic inversion of the B2C model Fotolia is a good example (www.fotolia.com) There you can post photos and videos and businesses will pay you a royalty to use them (if they like what you offer) You can also advertise businesses on your personal Web site (called an affiliate program) and receive monies for visitors who jump from your site to the business? Web sites C2C E-Commerce Consumer to Consumer (C2C) e-commerce ? when an individual sells products and services to another individual. You selling to another person (or the reverse) Usually occurs through an intermediary such as eBay B2G E-Commerce Business to Government (B2G) e-commerce ? when a business sells products and services to a government entity. Lockheed providing products and services to DoD Fairly large e-commerce model in terms of revenue Most U.S. government entities (for sure at the federal level) won?t do business with your business if you can?t do it electronically C2G E-Commerce Consumer to Government (C2G) e-commerce ? when an individual sells products and services to a government entity You selling something to the government This market is quite small and unremarkable Most times, ?you? must register as a business before selling something to the government, which would then become B2G e-commerce G2B E-Commerce Government to Business (G2B) e-commerce ? when a government entity sells products and services to businesses SBA providing surety guarantees, disaster assistance, ombudsmen, etc to small businesses TSA holding auctions and selling off confiscated items (most times, you must be a ?business? to participate in these auctions) U.S. Geological Survey (DOI) selling detailed survey data to businesses G2C E-Commerce Government to Consumer (G2C) e-commerce ? e-commerce activities performed between a government and its citizens Does not fit well at all within the traditional supply-and-demand e-commerce notion Paying taxes, registering vehicles, etc G2G E-Commerce Government to Government (G2G) e-commerce ? e-commerce activities within a nation?s government (can also refer to e-commerce activities between 2 or more nations? governments) Vertical govt integration ? e-commerce among agencies up and down federal and local levels Horizontal govt integration ? e-commerce among agencies within one level (e.g., federal) Mainly about information sharing, not commerce UNDERSTAND YOUR BUSINESS, PRODUCTS, SERVICES, & CUSTOMERS To be successful, you must? Define your products and services Define your target customers B2B (other businesses) B2C (individuals) Define your customers perception of the value of your products and services Who Are Your Customers? Business to Business Other businesses Business to Consumer Individuals Each is different and has different needs and wants Customer Product and Service Value Perception B2C: Convenience Versus Specialty Convenience Lower priced Purchased frequently Example: common food items Specialty Higher priced Purchased less frequently Example: Stereos, computers B2C: Commoditylike and Digital Commoditylike Same no matter where you purchase it Examples: books, music, movies Price and ease of ordering are important Digital Purchased and delivered over the Internet Best product type for B2C e-commerce Examples: Music, software B2C: Mass Customization Mass customization ? the ability of an organization to give its customers the opportunity to tailor its products or services Dell ? customized computer purchases Apple iTunes ? only the music you want (not necessarily the whole album) B2B: MRO Versus Direct Maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) materials (indirect materials) ? materials necessary for running a company but do not relate to the company?s primary business activities Similar to convenience items in B2C Office supplies, repair parts, lubricating oils MRO Materials Buyers in B2B make large purchases Can then demand a discount (not true in B2C) Can team up with other buyers to create demand aggregation Demand aggregation ? combining purchase requests from multiple buyers which justifies a larger discount Direct Materials Direct materials ? materials that are used in production in a manufacturing company or are placed on the shelf for sale in retail environments Relate directly to a company?s primary business activities Quality, quantity, and delivery timing are important Direct Materials Buyers can participate in reverse auctions for direct materials Reverse auction ? process in which a buyer posts its interests in buying items and sellers compete by submitting successively lower bids The lowest bidder wins B2B: Horizontal Versus Vertical B2B e-commerce takes advantage of e-marketplaces Electronic marketplace (e-marketplace) ? interactive business providing a central market where multiple buyers and sellers can engage in e-commerce Horizontal e-marketplaces Vertical e-marketplaces E-Marketplaces Horizontal E-Marketplace Horizontal e-marketplace ? connects buyers and sellers across many industries Primarily for MRO materials All industries need office supplies, travel, and the like Vertical E-Marketplace Vertical e-marketplace ? connects buyers and sellers in a given industry Primarily for direct materials Each industry has unique direct material needs Covisint (www.covisint.com) ? automotive Many others To Summarize B2C Varying demographics and lifestyles Convenience versus specialty products Commoditylike and digital work best of all Mass customization necessary in some instances To Summarize B2B MRO versus direct materials Demand aggregation is present E-marketplaces are vitally important Horizontal (MRO materials mainly) Vertical (direct materials mainly) FIND CUSTOMERS AND ESTABLISH RELATIONSHIPS You must first find customers Then establish relationships Otherwise, you can?t make a sale B2C and B2B techniques are very different Business to Consumer Need to determine your marketing mix Marketing mix ? set of marketing tools your organization will use to pursue its marketing objectives in reaching and attracting potential customers There are many such tools for B2C B2C Marketing Mix Tools Registering with search engines Online ads Viral marketing Affiliate programs Registering with Search Engines Some search engines will list your site for free Others charge a fee For an additional fee, your site can appear at top of a search list (every time) Online Ads Online ads (banner ads) ? small advertisements that appear on other sites Two variations are: Pop-up ad ? small Web page advertisement that appears on your screen outside the current Web site Pop-under ad ? pop-up ad you do not see until you close your current browser window Online Ads Banner ad for a loan lending services Viral Marketing Viral marketing ? encourages users of a product or service supplied by a B2C business to encourage friends to join in as well Blue Mountain Arts (www.bluemountain.com) Send a card Card has link so the other person can send you a card back Affiliate Programs Affiliate program ? arrangement between two e-commerce sites that directs viewers from one site to another If viewers buy at the second site, the second site pays a small fee to the first site Usually a percentage of the sale Affiliate Programs Click-through and conversion rates are important Click-through ? count of the number of people who visit one site and use an ad to get to another Conversion rate ? percentage of potential customers who actually buy something Affiliate Programs Business to Business Marketing Much more personal Not usually done with generic ads designed for mass distribution Often take place in e-marketplaces Business to Business Marketing Once a contact is made, the relationship must be established This often requires face-to-face meetings Must also integrate the IT systems to the supplier business and customer business To Summarize B2C Marketing mix drives customers to Web site Search engines, online ads, viral marketing, and affiliate programs Focus on conversion rates to measure success To Summarize B2B Frequently occurs in an e-marketplace Requires establishing formal business relationship Requires IT system integration Doesn?t include broad and generic marketing mix MOVE MONEY EASILY & SECURELY In e-commerce, most money moves electronically Security becomes very important B2C Payment Systems Credit cards Financial cybermediaries Electronic checks Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment Smart cards Financial Cybermediaries Financial cybermediary ? Internet-based company that makes it easy for one person to pay another person or organization over the Internet PayPal (www.paypal.com) is the most well-known Financial Cybermediaries Electronic Checks Electronic check ? mechanism for sending money from your checking or savings account to another person or organization Many implementations Most common implementation is online banking Electronic Bill Presentment & Payment Electronic Bill Presentment and Payment (EBPP) ? system that sends bills over the Internet and provides an easy-to-use mechanism (perhaps a button) to pay for them if the amount looks correct Available through Checkfree (www.checkfree.com) and Quicken (www.quicken.com) Smart Cards Smart card ? plastic card (the size of a credit card) that contains an embedded chip on which digital information can be stored and updated Debit cards are an implementation B2C Payment Systems Must move money and other information such as shipping address Digital wallets can help Digital wallet ? software and information Software provides transaction security Information includes delivery information and other forms of necessary information Digital Wallets Can be? Client-side ? you create this digital wallet and keep it on your computer Server-side (also called a thin wallet) ? an organization creates this for you and keeps it on its servers B2B Payment Systems Business customers? Make large purchases Will not pay with credit card or financial cybermediary Use financial EDI Pay for many purchases at once (perhaps the end of the month) EDI Electronic data interchange (EDI) ? direct computer-to-computer transfer of transaction information in standard business documents, such as invoices and purchase orders, in a standard format How businesses communicate with each other Used in e-marketplaces and VANs EDI and a VAN Financial EDI Financial EDI ? an electronic process used primarily within B2B for the payment of purchases This is electronic money in B2B Often occurs through an automated clearing house Security: The Pervading Concern Security is very important when moving money Some security measures? Encryption Secure Sockets Layers Secure Electronic Transactions Many, many others Encryption Encryption ? scrambles the contents of a file so that you can?t read it without having the right decryption key Often through public key encryption (PKE) ? uses two keys: a public key for everyone and private key for only the recipient of the encrypted information Public Key Encryption Secure Sockets Layers Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)? Creates a secure connection between a Web client and server Encrypts the information Sends the information over the Internet Denoted by lock icon on browser or https:// (notice the ?s?) Secure Sockets Layers The ?s? in https and the padlock Secure Electronic Transactions Secure Electronic Transaction (SET) ? transmission method that ensures transactions are legitimate as well as secure Helps verify use of a credit card, for example, by sending the transaction to the credit issuer as well as the seller/supplier To Summarize B2C Credit cards, financial cybermediaries, electronic checks, EBPP, smart cards, and digital wallets Pay for individual purchases, usually in small amounts Each payment must be validated To Summarize B2B Use EDI to facilitate ordering process VANS can provide for EDI and financial EDI Use financial EDI for payment of purchases To Summarize B2C and B2B ? security? Overriding concern Encryption, SSLs, SET, and others E-BUSINESS TRENDS ?E? is certainly changing many things Many trends in every part of your life Three important ones Youth M-commerce The Long Tail E-Business Trend - Youth Screenager ? person who spends a lot of time in front of a screen ? TV, iPod, computer, cell phone Digital native ? personal ushered into this world alongside the digital revolution Most young people are screenagers and digital natives They readily embrace technology and therefore are most suited to running a business in the ?e? world E-Business Trend ? M-Commerce Mobile computing ? your ability to use technology to wirelessly connect to and use centrally located information and/or application software M-commerce ? e-commerce conducted over a wireless device Subset of mobile computing Mobility is key for the next generation of e-commerce that will rely on Knowing where we are Our ability to do anything from anywhere E-Business Trend ? Long Tail Long Tail ? first offered by Chris Anderson; explains e-commerce profitability in terms of a sales curve Brick-and-mortar businesses carry limited inventory, inventory that is popular E-businesses can carry huge amounts of ?niche? inventory that may only sell a couple of times a year E-Business Trend ? Long Tail E-Business Trend ? Long Tail
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