Explain why two four-sugar polysaccharides can be different, even if both consist of two glucose monomers and two galactose monomers.
They could differ in 1) location of linkages (e.g., 1,4 or 1,6); 2) types of linkages (e.g., alpha or beta): 3) the sequence of the monomers (e.g., two galactose then two clugose, versus alternating galactose and glucose); and/or 4) whether the four monomers are linked in a line or whether they are branched.
Identify two aspects of the structures of cellulose, chitin, and peptidoglycan that correlate with their function as structural molecules.
1) the beta-1,4-glycosidic linkages in these molecules are difficult to degrade, 2) when individual molecules of these carbohydrates align, bonds form between them and produce tough fibers or sheets.
Describe how the carbohydrates you ate during breakfast today are functioning in your body right now.
Most are probably being broken down into glucose, which in turn is being broken down in reactions that lead to the synthesis of ATP. In short, the carbohydrates are providing you with chemical energy.
What is the difference between a monosaccharide, a disaccharide and a polysaccharide?
The number of monomers in the molecule.
What type of bond allows sugars to polymerize?
What holds cellulse molecules together in bundles large enough to form fibers?