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George Mason University
George Mason University
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History of Psychology
What is Psychophysics
the study of physical stimuli and the psychological reaction to them
relative sensitivity of various areas on the surface of the body
Two Major contributions
1) Mapping the relative sensitivity of various locations on skin
2) Werbers law
"tactile sense uses two point threshold for any place on skin... the point where perception changes from feeling one point to two"
two-point discrimination threshold
demonstrating a mathematical relationship between the psychological and physical
Werbers Law: Stimulus A increases in in tensity... what happens?
it takes progressively larger difference between Stimulus A and Stimulus B for a person to detect a difference between the two
Point where people can distinguish between two different weights
Significance of his findings- He was able to measure ______________
He was able to measure
Significance of findings- Showed our understanding of __________ involves more than just the ___________________ of the stimuli
Showed our understanding of
involves more then just the
of the stimuli
Significance of his findings- Showed ________ and ____________ events can be realized through ____________________.
mental and physical
events can be realized through
interest in ______________ problemq
supporter of materialism?
NO! Wanted to defeat it
_________ vs ___________
"day view" vs. "night view"
"Day view"- world has ________________
goes beyond individual consciousness
upon death- individual conscious merges with collective conscious
"night view"- ________ is important
- development of ________
is more important
wanted to study higher mental process of ________
mathematical equation to show the effects of ___________ and _______
learning and relearning
used only lab experiments
same experiment but used __________ instead of _________________
experiments showed memory is _________, ___________ and ___________
active, constructive and individual
Two Point Discrimination Method used to measure ____________________________
mental fatigue of kids in germany
Fatigue impairs what?
students ability to distinguish between two points of stimulation
View of Intelligence
general ability to combine pieces of information
see relationships and arrive at conclusions
Looked at _______________ as well as memory
had a problem with what part of the church?
doctrine of papal infallibility
published a critique about it
felt, due to historical evidence, it was impossible to accept
_____________ view of psychology
- based on experience
Wundt vs Brentano:
inductive vs deductive
Brentano- deductive approach
Wundt- inductive approach
Wundt Vs Brentano:
products of mental actions vs act psychology
Brentano- wanted to study Mental Acts
Wundt- wanted to study products of mental acts
Mental Acts (3)
Loving vs Hating
Wundt Vs Brentano:
internal vs external observation
Brentano- external observations
Wundt- internal observations
methods of psychology (3)
methods of psych- memory
mental acts observed in memory
studied quietly and empirically
method of psych- imagination
possible to intellectually arous various mental phenomena for study
method of psych- populations
study and compare mental phenomena in diff populations
(children, insane, animals)
in perspective- formulation of ______________________ approach to that of Wundt
in perspective- ____________ important historical predecessor to the american functional psychologies
in perspective- two important studies
A. Ehrenfels- form quality- Gestalt
Weber and Fechners experiments
nativist view of _____________
depth perception (interpretation)
________ view of depth perception (interpretation)
compilation of studies of the phenomenological characteristics of sound of diff instruments, determinants of melody, and consonance and dissonance of tones.
phenomena ( __________ or ________) vs mental functions
sensory or imaginary
tones, colors and images
psychology = ________ processes
higher mental processes
Society for Child Psychology
Society for child Psychology
research organization supporting studies of children (mental life)
lesson from Clever Hans
showed need to test for experimental effects
showed need to test for experimenter effects- lesson from ___________
aim of his experimental lab was...
to develop a positivistic general psychology...
positivist position includes _____ phenomena such as...
such as thinking, judging, remembering and doubting
Positivist position- says only certain knowledge obtained through ____________________________
objective publicity observable events
implications of ________ experiments about Wundt
Implications of Marbes experiments about Wundt
1. Wundt believed there were 3 elements of consiousness (sensations, images and feelings)
2. more consious experience than Wundt thought
3. Act of judging includes other mental acts (hesitation)
Brians study on __________________
Brians study on nonsense syllables-
showed what about sensations?
not sufficient to place them in mental experience
Brians study on nonsense syllables:
Abstraction of desired element based on ______ acts they termed ______
abstraction of desired element based on
acts they termed
What happened to the German psychologists because of WWI and WWII
lost ties with many psychologist friends in allied countries
research burned or lost
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