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Earth is properly characterized as ___.
The water planet
Water covers some ________ of Earth's surface.
Which of the following is correct?
Water has a density of ___.
When water freezes, its density ____.
Earth's water supply originated from ____.
The present quantity of water on Earth was achieved approximately _____.
Eustasy refers to ___.
During the height of the last ice age, approximately 18,000 years ago, sea level ____.
Which of the following is true of the distribution of land and water on Earth?
The largest portion of fresh water today is located in ____.
Icecaps and glaciers
Earth's oceans possess ____.
Which is true regarding water in rivers, streams, and the atmosphere?
Other than ice sheets and glaciers, the largest repository of fresh water is located in ____.
Water molecules bind tightly to one another. This is a result of ___.
If water behaved like other compounds, ____.
Icebergs would sink to the bottom of the oceans & it would shrink as it cooled and froze
Water is a good solvent because ____.
Surface tension and capillarity are the result of ____.
Hydrogen bonding between water molecules
Water movement through the soil and water held in a straw above the surface of the liquid you are drinking result from a common phenomenon. What is this phenomenon?
The term deposition refers to ____.
What is the heat energy involved in the change of state, or phase, in water?
Which of the following is true regarding the evaporation of water?
Both the latent heat of melting (heat of fusion) and the latent heat of freezinginvolve the absorption or release of ________ calories per gram of waterchanging state.
Which of the following phase changes involves the greatest number of calories?
When water condenses, it ________ heat energy and ________ the surrounding air.
When frost forms, it ___.
When water evaporates, it _____ heat energy and _____ the surrounding air.
In order to melt two grams of ice, how many calories of heat energy must be added to the ice during its phase change? (specific heat of water = 1 cal/gm;heat of fusion =85 cal/gm) (heat of vaporization = 585 cal/gm; heat of sublimation = 670 cal/gm)
The process of sublimation in the atmosphere produces ____.
In winter, freezing water can break pipes and even crack engine blocks. Why doesthis happen?
Water expands in volume as it freezes in response to hydrogen bonding
Most of the precipitation and evaporation on Earth takes place over the ___.
Water vapor in the atmosphere is called ___.
Relative humidity is ___.
The capacity of the air to hold water vapor is basically a function of ____.
A mass of air always becomes saturated when it reaches the ____.
A humidity measure that remains constant as temperature and pressure change, andwhich is expressed as a mass of water vapor per mass (g/kg) of air, is ____.
As temperature increases during the day, relative humidity usually ____.
Which of the following is used to measure relative humidity?
The greater the difference in temperature between the wet bulb and dry bulbon a sling psychrometer, the ________ the air is and the ________ the relative humidity.
The elevation at which the bottoms of clouds begin to form represents the elevationat which ____.
Dew point occurs & relative humidity reaches 100 percent
Which of the following normally would be true of the humidity above the tropical rainforests of the world?
The specific humidity would be high, the relative humidity would be high, & the saturation vapor pressure would be high
The general term that refers to the tendency of a parcel of air to either remain inplace or change its initial position is ________.
An air parcel is considered unstable when it ____.
Continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similardensity
A dry air parcel that is rising because of heat energy derived from the surface is ____.
All adiabatic temperature changes occur as a result of ____.
When the environmental lapse rate is between the dry and moist adiabatic lapse ratesconditions are described as ___.
Assume a warm air parcel near Earth's surface has a temperature of 21 degrees C (70degrees F) and begins to rise upward. Assume it becomes saturated at 1000 m(3300 ft) altitude, and continues to rise to 2000 m (6600 ft) altitude. Whatwould the approximate temperature of the parcel be at an elevation of 2000 m(6600 ft)?
5degrees C (41.0 degrees F)
Air that is not saturated will cool or heat at a rate of ________ as itrises or descends, respectively.
The wet adiabatic rate is ________ than the dry adiabatic rate because ________.
Areas between 25 degrees to 35 degrees latitude usually become ________ because thisarea is dominated by air that is sinking and being ________.
Asair sinks down the leeward side of a mountain, it will move into aregion of ________ air pressure and will therefore be ________ by compression.
An individual raindrop consists of approximately ________ moisture droplets.
The condensation process requires ____.
Clouds that have vertical development and produce precipitation are called ____.
Which type of cloud would dominate the weather in a region of tropical rain forests?
Which of the following are correctly matched?
Which of the following is a middle-level cloud type?
Which of the following is true regarding cirrostratus clouds?
Which cloud type is specifically a good indicator of an arriving storm, say within the next 24 hours?
Florida has the highest thunderstorm frequency in the U.S. because ____.
The Florida peninsula heats to high temperatures during the day, & air masses surround the peninsula
Which type of cloud would you most likely see on a regular basis in a subtropical desert during the summer?
Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
Cooling of a surface overnight that chills the air layer directly above that surfacemay form ____.
A radiation fog
Fog often lingers in river valleys because ____.
A fog that develops when warm, moist air blows over a cold current (such as theCalifornia Current) is an example of ____ fog.
On cool spring mornings, veils of fog can often be seen rising above warm lakesand ponds. This type fog is an example of ________ fog.
A radiation fog is most likely to develop when ____.
theshort-termcondition of the atmosphere.
Thescientific study of the atmosphere is
Which is not true of weather-related damage?
The damage has never exceeded $90 billion worldwide.
Over the last two decades, costs for weather-relateddestruction has, on an annual basis,
The transition from the Ice Age to the present warmconditions can best be considered an example of
a change in climate.
Whichof the following is false regarding air masses?
Airmasses tend to maintain their original characteristics as they migrate fromtheir source regions.
Airmasses that develop over Canada are examples of ________ air masses.
Awell-developed,newly formed cP air mass would have which of the following characteristics?
all of the above
Whichof the following pressure systems reside within the source region for mP airmasses?
Aleutianlow and Icelandic low
AmT air mass is likely to be ________ than a cT air mass because the mT air mass________.
wetter;forms over the ocean
With respect to the three main lifting (cooling) mechanisms(local heating, orographic, and frontal), which of the following is correct?
Given the necessary physical requirements, orographicprecipitation is usually the most consistent type of the three.
Lake effect snow involves
heavy snowfall on the leeward shores of Great Lakes.
cP and cA air masses being humidified and warmed by theGreat Lakes.
A and C only
Which of the following would result in the modification ofthe air mass?
A mT air mass moving across Texas.
A cP air mass moving across the Great Lakes.
A cT air mass moving across the Gulf of Mexico.
An cA air mass moving across the Gulf of Alaska.
all of the above
TheIntertropical Convergence Zone is characterized by
warm,wet rising air.
Summerafternoon thundershowers in the southeastern United States are more than likelya result of
forceduplift due to the presence of a physical barrier.
Whichof the following does not occur during the development of a Chinook wind?(Assume rain occurs near the mountain summit.)
decreasein relative humidity during the air's ascent up the windward side
Theplace on Earth with the highest annual average rainfall is located in
Therecord precipitation received in a single year was
onthe slopes of the Assam Hills in India.
Thehighest rainfall in the world occurs in an area where rainfall is generated by
orographicuplift of warm, moist air.
Thewetter, intercepting slope of a mountain is termed the ________ slope, whereasthe drier, downwind slope is termed the ________ slope.
Whichof the following statements is true?
Whenair is cooled, its ability to hold moisture decreases.
Thereis greater precipitation near the equator than near the poles.
Wintersin Siberia should be very dry, with little precipitation.
Precipitationshould occur when moist air rises over a mountain.
Whena cold front approaches, air pressure will initially ________ due to thedisplacement and uplift of ________ air.
Aftera cold front passes, the temperature ________ and the pressure ________(relative to the conditions that existed prior to the passage of the front).
Whichof the following is incorrectly matched?
coldfront clear cold air and high clouds as the front approaches
Whichof the following is true of migrating centers of low pressure in theNorthern Hemisphere?
Thesepressure systems are characterized by converging, ascending air that spiralsinward in a counterclockwise fashion.
Thearea along a cold front is described by which of the following?
windshifting and strong, warm air abruptly lifted by colder air
Thearea along a warm front is best described by which of the following?
warmair being lifted gently and steadily over cooler air
Stormtracks across the United States and Canada generally
shiftto the south in winter, and toward the north in summer.
Occlusionin a midlatitude wave cyclone can occur because
coldfronts travel more quickly than warm fronts.
Inwhich of the following areas will thunderstorms not develop?
underareas of strong high pressure
Summerthunderstorms in the southern U.S. are usually produced by towering ________clouds that form by ________.
whenwater freezes inside a cloud while traveling in a convection current.
Whichof the following is true?
Thunderis caused by rapid heating of the air.
Thunderis caused by rapid expansion of the air.
withincumulonimbus clouds, and sometimes in association with cold front activity.
Which is not true of Derechos?
The winds travel in a curved path.
straight-line winds associated with thunderstorms.
Thevast majority of tornadoes in the northern hemisphere exhibit ________ rotationbecause they are ________ pressure systemslike all storms.
Whichof the following is thought to be necessary for the development of a tornado?
ahorizontally rotating body of air generated by differences in wind speedbetween low-leveland upper-levelair flow
Whichof the following cloud types is associated with tornado development?
Tornadoesare ranked in terms of wind speed and related property damage using the________ scale.
Hurricanesderive their energy from
theheat of condensation.
Upliftand storm development occur on the ________ side of an easterly wave.
Whichof the following is true of hurricanes in the western Atlantic?
Thepeak months of occurrence are from August to October.
Whichpart of a hurricane consists of dry, subsiding air?
Whyare the winds in a hurricane and tornado so strong?
Thepressure gradient is strong.
Thepressure at the center of the storm is very low.
Tremendousamounts of condensation occur in the center of the storm.
Hurricanesdie when they move over land because
evaporationand subsequent condensation are no longer sufficient to sustain them.
Whenhurricanes first form in the Northern Hemisphere, they usually travel from________, and later from ________ as they move to higher latitudes.
eastto west; west to east
Whichof the following is incorrect?
Themost severe weather in a hurricane occurs in the spiral bands.
Theannual frequency of tropical cyclones is greatest in the ________ Ocean.
Which hurricane holds the western hemisphere records forlowest barometric pressure?
Whichof the following is false?
The frequency of tornadoes decreased during the 1990s.
Which is not true of the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane season?
There were three category 5 hurricanes in the Gulf ofMexico at the same time.
Allof the following have happened in the 1990s, excep
asubstantial decline in the number and destructiveness of tornadoes.
Thelowest sea-levelpressure was recorded
inthe center of Typhoon Tip.
Strongand frequent Atlantic hurricanes
arecommon during La Niña episodes.
Theoverall quantity of water on Earth is constantly fluctuating as evidenced bychanges in sea level.
Lessthan 3 percent of Earth's waters are classified as fresh water.
Salinelakes are usually in tropical areas.
Hydrogenbonding between water molecules produces the properties of surface tension andcapillarity.
Thefact that water expands as it cools and freezes is an important physicalweathering process.
Thebulk of the evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents.
Thephase changes of water provide a significant amount of the energy that powersthe general circulation of the atmosphere.
Thephase change from steam to water involves less energy than the phase changefrom ice to water.
Airis saturated when the dew-point temperature and the air temperature coincide.
Therelatively dry air over the Sahara actually contains more water vapor than overrelatively moist midlatitudes.
Therelative humidity of large air masses is useful in forecasting weather.
Themoist adiabatic rate (MAR) is less than the dry adiabatic rate (DAR) as aresult of the release of the latent heat of condensation within the risingparcel of air.
Unstableconditions are produced when a parcel of air sinks and heats at the wetadiabatic rate.
Whenhigh-levelair in the subtropics sinks, it is heated by compression and this raisesits temperature and relative humidity.
Asmall, puffy cumulus cloud can weigh as much as 1000 tons.
Thedestructive energy associated with major storms is derived largely from the condensationof water.
Thecollision-coalescenceprocess of raindrop formation predominates in clouds at high latitudes.
Stabilityrefers to the tendency of a parcel of air to either remain as it is or changeits initial position by lifting or falling.
Anair mass is a mass of air that may extend through the lower half of thetroposphere and is homogenous in terms of temperature and humidity.
Continentalpolar air masses of cold, dry air are more developed during the summerover North America than in winter.
Theinterception of passing air masses by a mountain barrier is termed orographicuplift, and it produces moist windward slopes and drier leeward slopes.
Chinookwinds form on the windward side of mountains.
Orographicprecipitation is limited in areal extent, yet it produces the world's highestprecipitation amounts and averages.
Aline on a weather map that is marked with small triangular spikes designates awarm front.
Thedirection of travel of midlatitude wave cyclones is controlled largely by thepolar jet stream.
Inthe Southern Hemisphere, a migrating center of low pressure, with converging,ascending air that spirals clockwise, is a cyclone.
Weatherprediction may always remain difficult because slight changes of the input datainto computer models can result in big differences in the predicted outcome ofa weather situation.
Thunderstormsand hail are associated with cumulonimbus cloud development.
Tornadoes,typhoons and hurricanes are identical in physical structure and properties,although they occur in different parts of the world.
Hurricanesand tornadoes are fueled by the latent heat of condensation.
Hurricanesare more likely to develop when sea surface temperatures are slightly belownormal.
Fogcan be used as a source of water.
Theyear 2002 saw relatively little weather-related damage.
Theformation of sleet requires a sub-freezing layer of air near the ground.
Mostlightning strikes occur over water.
Thefrequency of tornadoes in the United States has been decreasing over the lastten or so years.
Thelowest sea-levelpressure on Earth was measured inside a hurricane.
Astrong El Niño usually means a large number of strong Atlantic hurricanes.
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