A short-lived anxiety reaction to a traumatic event; if it lasts more than a month, it is diagnosed as posttraumatic stress disorder
Literally, fear of the marketplace. Fear of being in crowded or open places. Anxiety about situations in which it would be embarrassing or difficult to escape if panic symptoms occur
In the subcortical region of the brain, the anterior portion of the cingulate gyrus, stretching about the corpus callosum.
any drug that alleviates depression; also widely used to treat anxiety disorders
an unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension accompanied by increased physciological arousal;
disorders in which fear or tension is overriding and the primary distrubance
Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)
A test that measures the extent to which people respond fearfully to their bodily sensations; predcits the degree to which unexplained physciological arousal leads to panic attacks.
minor tranquilizers or benzodiazepines used to treat anxiety disorders
The tendency to exhibit anxiety or to freeze when facing threat. In infants it manifests as a tendency to become agitated and cry when faced with novel stimuli and may be a heritable predisposition for the development of anxiety disorders.
any of several drugs commonly used to treat anxiety, such as Valium and Xanax
any of numerous beta-adrenergic antagonists, competitive inhibitors of a class of receptors for the hormone adrenalin; are approved as cardiovascular drugs but often used to treat social phobia, despite a lac of demonstrated efficacy.
the irresistible impulse to repeat an irrational act or though over and over again.
An alteration in perception of the self in which the individual loses a sense of reality and feels estranged from the self and perhaps separated from the body.
Loss of the sense that the surroundings are real
a process wherby a group of mental processes i split off from the main stream of consciousness, or behavior loses its relationship with the rest of th personality.
exposure and response prevention (ERP)
The most widely used and accepted treatment of obesessive-compulsive disorder, in which the sufferer is prevented from engagin in compulsive ritual activty and instead faces the anxiety provoed by the stimulus, leading eventually to extinction of the conditioned response.
a reaction to real or perceived immediate danger in the present; can involve arousal or SNA
Set of brain structures, including the amygdala, that tend to be activated when the individual is feeling anxious or fearful; especially active amoung people with anxiety disorders.
a cognitive model for the etiology of agoraphobia; suggest the condition is drive by negative thoughts about the consequences of haivng a panic attack in public.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Disorder charcterized by anxiety so chronic, persistent, and pervasive that it seems free-floatin. the individual is gittery and strained, distractible, and worried that something bad is about to happen
Treatment for anxiety disorders that involves visualizing feared scenes for extended periods of time. Frequently used in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder when in vivo exposure to the initial trauma can't be conducted.
classical conditioning of panic attacks in response to internal bodily senstions of arousal
the brain region in the fear circuit that is especially important in painc disorder; the major source in the brain of norepinephrine, which helps trigger sympathetic nervous system activity.
Mowrer's two factor model
Theory of avoidance learning according to which 1. fear is attached to a neutral stimulus by paring it with a noxious unconditioned stimulus, and 2. a person learns to escape the fear elicited y the conditioned stiulus, thereby aviouding the unconditioned stimulus. n
old term for a large group of nonpsychotic disorders characterized by unrealistic anxeity, depression an other associated problem.s
the tendency to react to events with greater than average negative affect; a strong predictor of onset of anxiety disorders and depression
memories based on conections between sensory stimuli and external events
an intrusive and recurring thought that seems irrational and uncontrollable to the perosn experiencing it.
an anxiety disorder in which the mind is flooded with persistent and uncontrollable thoughts or the individual is compelled to repeat certain acts again and again, cuase significant distress and interference with everyday functioning.
the portion of the frontal lobe located just above the eyes ; one of three closely related brain regions that are unusually active in individual with ocd.
a sudden attack of intense apprehension, terro, and impending doom, accompanid by symptoms such as labored breathing, nausea, chest pain, etc.
Panic Control Therapy (PCT)
a cognitive behavior treatment, based on the tendency of individuals with panic disorder to overreact to bodily stimuli, in which sensations are indivued physcially and coped with under safe conditions
an anxiety disorder in which ther is intense fear and avoidance of specific objects and situaitons, recognized as irrational by the individual
an anxiety disorder in which a particularly stressful event, such as rape, brings in its aftermath intrusive re experiencingp of the trauma.
in classical conditioning theory, a biological predisposition to associate particular stimuli readily with the unconditioned stimulus
behaviors used to avoid experiencing anxiety in feared situations,. S
any of various drugs that inhibit the presynaptic reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin, thereby prolonging its effects on postsynaptic neurons.
symptoms of a disodre that are clinically significant but do not meet full diagnostic criteria
a group of antidepressants with molecular structures characterized by three fused rings; interfere with the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.
Want to see the other 39 Flashcards in Chapter 5?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!