A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
THe fertilized egg; it enters into a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
The developing human organism about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after the conception to birth.
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
Physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation.
Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
Interpreting our new experience in term of our existing schemas.
Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived.
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6-7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view.
Theory of Mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states
Concrete Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events/
Formal operational stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically.
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning about 8 months og age.
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separationg.
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
Our understanding and evaluation of who we are.
The transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence.
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
Primary sex characteristics
The body structures that make sexual reproduction possible.
Secondary sex characteristics
Non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, males voice quality, and body hair.
First menstrual period
Before age 9, most children's morality focuses on self-interest. They obey rules either to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards.
By early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are the laws and rules.
With the abstract reasoning of formal operational though, people may reach a third moral level. Actions are judged "right"because they flow from people's rights or from self-defined, basic ethical principles.
Our sense off self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's tasks is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
The "we"aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I? that comes from our group memberships.
In Erikson's theory, the ability to from close, loving relationships; a primary developmental tasks in late adolescence and early adulthood.
For some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to ealy twenties, bridging the gap between adolescent dependence and full independence and responsible adulthood.
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
A study in which people in different ages are compared with one another.
Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period.
Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
Our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tend to decrease during late adulthood.
The culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement.
1. The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called A) biological psychology. C) personality psychology. B) social psychology. D) developmental psychology.
D) developmental psychology.
2. A fertilized egg is called a(n) A) zygote. B) fetus. C) embryo. D) teratogen.
3. From 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception, the human organism is known as a(n) A) ovum. B) embryo. C) fetus. D) zygote.
4. The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth is known as a(n) A) fetus. B) ovum. C) embryo. D) zygote.
B) they form an emotional attachment to their mother during breast feeding
5. Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice because A) they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born. B) they form an emotional attachment to their mother during breast feeding. C) they rapidly habituate to lower-pitched male voices. D) their reflexes are naturally triggered by higher-pitched sounds.
7. Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called A) zygotes. B) schemas. C) attachments. D) teratogens.
8. The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a A) hallucinogen. B) neurotransmitter. C) form of DNA. D) teratogen.
9. When Joan touched her infant's cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth. Joan was eliciting the reflex to ________ a nipple. A) imprint on B) accommodate to C) root for D) habituate to
C) root for
10. Three-month-old Andrew was obviously startled by the first ring of the telephone, but with each subsequent ring heseemed to become less reactive. This best illustrates the process of A) habituation. B) accommodation. C) conservation. D) imprinting.
11. Research on the perceptual abilities of newborns indicates that they A) see only differences in brightness. B) look more at a facelike image than at a bull's-eye pattern. C) see nothing for the first 12 hours. D) recognize the outlines of objects but none of the details.
B) look more at a facelike image than at a bull's-eye pattern.
12. Excess neural connections in the brain's association areas are reduced through a process of A) attachment. B) pruning. C) imprinting. D) accommodation.
13. Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as A) imprinting. B) maturation. C) habituation. D) generativity.
14. Putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of crib death has been associated with a slight delay in children's A) stranger anxiety. B) walking. C) crawling. D) bladder control.
15. It is difficult to successfully train many children to walk before they are 10 months old. This best illustrates the importance of A) accommodation. B) maturation. C) imprinting. D) assimilation.
16. Three-year-olds who experienced a fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker were unable to remember the cause of this vivid event when they were 10-year-olds. This best illustrates A) infantile amnesia. B) crystallized intelligence. C) assimilation. D) habituation.
A) infantile amnesia.
17. When tethered to a mobile, infants learned the association between A) kicking and the mobile's movement. C) rooting and the mobile's sound. B) looking and the mobile's smell. D) swallowing and the mobile's color.
A) kicking and the mobile's movement
18. A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information is called a(n) A) neural network. B) schema. C) attachment. D) temperament.
B) interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding
19. According to Piaget, assimilation involves A) altering existing schemas in order to incorporate new information. B) interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding. C) the absorption of nutrients into the body for growth and development. D) training children to behave in a socially acceptable manner.
20. Three-year-old Zara calls all four-legged animals “kitties.” Her tendency to fit all four-legged animals into her existing conception of a kitten illustrates the process of A) accommodation. B) egocentrism. C) assimilation. D) conservation.
21. Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called A) maturation. B) habituation. C) accommodation. D) assimilation.
22. The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as A) assimilation. B) object permanence. C) habituation. D) conservation.
B) object permanence
23. Lisa attempts to retrieve her bottle after her father hides it under a blanket. This suggests that Lisa has developed a sense of A) object permanence. B) conservation. C) accommodation. D) egocentrism.
A) object permanence
24. The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects is called A) accommodation. B) object permanence. C) imprinting. D) conservation.
25. Five-year-old Tammy mistakenly believes that her short, wide glass contains less soda than her brother's tall, narrowglass. Actually, both glasses contain the same amount of soda. This illustrates that Tammy lacks the concept of A) object permanence. B) conservation. C) egocentrism. D) assimilation.
26. Children's ability to infer other people's intentions and feelings is indicative of their emerging A) conservation. B) object permanence. C) theory of mind. D) conventional morality.
D) conventional morality.
B) theory of mind.
27. In an experiment, children see a doll named Sally leave her ball in a red cupboard and go away. They then observe another doll, Anne, move the ball to a different location. In asking children where Sally will look for the ball upon her return, the investigators are testing the children’s A) stranger anxiety. B) theory of mind. C) habituation. D) moral reasoning.
28. Autism is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired A) sense of object permanence. C) concept of conservation. B) theory of mind. D) capacity for stranger anxiety.
B) theory of mind.
29. According to Piaget, children acquire the mental operations needed to comprehend such things as mathematical transformations and conservation during the ________ stage. A) concrete operational B) preoperational C) formal operational D) sensorimotor
A) concrete operational
30. According to Piaget, people are first able to reason abstractly and think hypothetically during the ________ stage. A) formal operational B) preoperational C) concrete operational D) postconventional
A) formal operational
31. Young children typically try to stay very close to their parents when they are in an unfamiliar setting. This best illustrates the adaptive value of A) egocentrism. B) habituation. C) conservation. D) attachment.
32. The Harlows' studies of infant monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that body contact promotes A) conservation. B) stranger anxiety. C) egocentrism. D) attachment.
C) preferred the nonnourishing cloth mother.
33. Infant monkeys raised with a nourishing wire mother and a nonnourishing cloth mother A) shifted their initial preference for the wire mother to the cloth mother as they matured. B) preferred the nourishing wire mother. C) preferred the nonnourishing cloth mother. D) showed no preference for one mother over the other.
34. The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called A) accommodation. B) assimilation. C) imprinting. D) habituation.
35. Even though Alicia was busy playing when her mother came to pick her up from her baby-sitter, she quickly ran to her mother, gesturing to be held. Alicia most clearly showed signs of A) secure attachment. B) conservation. C) egocentrism. D) stranger anxiety.
A) secure attachment.
36. Dr. Ensing studies the reactions of very young children who are briefly separated from their mothers while in an unfamiliar setting. It is most likely that Dr. Ensing is conducting research on A) conservation. B) egocentrism. C) imprinting. D) attachment.
37. Infants who are unable to predict how their parents will react to their cries for care and attention are especially likely to show signs of A) habituation. B) egocentrism. C) conservation. D) insecure attachment.
D) insecure attachment.
38. Questions about the extent to which secure attachments are influenced by infant temperament or by responsive parenting are most directly relevant to the issue of A) nature or nurture. B) continuity or stages. C) assimilation or accommodation. D) stability or change.
A) nature or nurture.
39. Research indicates that most abusive parents report that they themselves were A) prevented from interacting with childhood peers. B) raised in a permissive and overindulgent environment. C) battered or neglected as children. D) raised by authoritative parents.
C) battered or neglected as children.
40. Problem behaviors are more likely to be associated with a child's ________ than with the amount of time the child spends in day care. A) secondary sex characteristics B) temperament C) sense of object permanence D) infantile amnesia
41. Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old. When he looks into a mirror he is likely to A) reach toward the image as if it were another child. C) be somewhat frightened and turn away. B) recognize the image as himself. D) show no interest and ignore what he sees.
A) reach toward the image as if it were another child
42. Authoritarian parents are especially likely to be A) educated. B) trusting. C) inflexible. D) permissive.
B) clear behavior expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness.
43. Two characteristics of authoritative parents are that they provide children with A) confusing behavior expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness. B) clear behavior expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness. C) confusing behavior expectations and demonstrate low levels of parental responsiveness. D) clear behavior expectations and demonstrate low levels of parental responsiveness.
44. Parents who make few demands on their children and use little punishment are A) authoritative. B) egocentric. C) permissive. D) authoritarian.
45. The term puberty refers to the period of A) rapid physical development and the onset of reproductive capability. B) formal operations and the development of conventional morality. C) sexual attraction to the oppositesex parent. D) late adolescence when selfidentity is formed.
A) rapid physical development and the onset of reproductive capability.
46. Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called A) primary sex characteristics. C) secondary sex characteristics. B) teratogens. D) masculine prototypes.
C) secondary sex characteristics.
47. The speed of neurotransmission in the frontal lobe increases during adolescence due to the growth of A) the pituitary gland. B) myelin. C) secondary sex characteristics. D) the self-concept.
A) the pituitary gland.
48. The improved judgment and impulse control that occur as adolescents grow older is made possible by the development of A) the limbic system. C) secondary sex characteristics. B) primary sex characteristics. D) the frontal lobes.
D) the frontal lobes.
49. A postconventional level of morality is most likely to be found in cultures that value A) authoritarian parenting. B) assimilation. C) individualism. D) crystallized intelligence.
50. Henry disapproves of stealing jelly beans from his sister's Easter basket because he thinks his mother will spank himif he does. Henry best represents a ________ morality. A) preconventional B) concrete operational C) postconventional D) conventional
51. Adolescents and their parents are most likely to have disagreements regarding A) homework. B) college choices. C) religious beliefs. D) career choices.
C) Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.
52. Which of the following is TRUE of adolescence today as compared to a century ago? A) Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life. B) Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs earlier in life. C) Menarche occurs earlier in life, and adult independence occurs later in life. D) Menarche occurs later in life, and adult independence occurs later in life.
53. The deterioration of memory and thinking caused by ailments such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of small strokes is called A) role confusion. B) dementia. C) menarche. D) crystallized intelligence.
54. In recall and recognition tests of memory for recently learned material, older adults are more likely than young adults to have difficulty A) recognizing meaningless material. C) recognizing meaningful material. B) recalling meaningful material. D) recalling meaningless material.
D) recalling meaningless material.
55. Tonya asks people of different ages to complete a measure of life satisfaction. She then looks for life satisfactiondifferences across different age levels. Tonya is conducting a ________ study. A) crosssectional B) concrete operational C) preoperational D) longitudinal
56. In which research method are the same people retested over a period of years? A) experimental B) chronological C) crosssectional D) longitudinal
57. Older adults outperformed younger adults in their responses to New York Times crossword puzzles. The superior performance of these older adults best illustrates the value of A) concrete operational thought. B) habituation. C) crystallized intelligence. D) fluid intelligence.
C) crystallized intelligence.
58. Kathryn and Rafael's third and last child is leaving home for college next year. Their empty nest is likely to be a(n) ________ place. A) happy B) anxious C) boring D) depressed
A) will shift from their initially intended majors.
59. Research suggests that college or university students A) will shift from their initially intended majors. B) will complete a graduate school program after their undergraduate education. C) should pursue specific vocational training programs rather than a broad liberal arts education. D) should develop clear occupational goals before they begin school.
A) a biopsychosocial approach
60. Professor Appledorn emphasizes that whether people flourish in later life depends on a continuous interaction among their inborn temperaments, their personal relationships, and their mental expectations regarding the aging process. The professor’s viewpoint best illustrates A) a biopsychosocial approach. C) an evolutionary perspective. B) longitudinal study. D) a social intuitionist theory.
C) continuity or stages.
61. Ross believes that personality development is a matter of sudden qualitative changes at various turning points in the life span. His viewpoint is most directly relevant to the issue of A) assimilation or accommodation. C) continuity or stages. B) imprinting or object permanence. D) nature or nurture.
62. Stage theories of adult development are most likely to be criticized for exaggerating the A) predictability of development. C) interaction of nature and nurture. B) importance of fluid intelligence. D) importance of social influence.
A) predictability of development
63. Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of A) stability or change. B) continuity or stages. C) nature or nurture. D) fluid or crystallized intelligence.
A) stability or change.
64. Human personality shows the greatest stability during A) teenage years. B) preschool years. C) adulthood. D) late childhood.
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