Chapter 6 - General Anatomy. Why Study Anatomy? Anatomy: is the study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of. It is the science of the structure of organism, or of their parts. Physiology: Is of the functions and activities performed by the body structures. Histology: Is the study of the minute (tiny) structural parts of the body (living tissue), such as tissue, hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands. Basic construction of the cell The cells of all living things are composed of a substance called protoplasm, a colorless gelly-like substance in which food elements such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present. Protoplasm is similar to the white of a raw egg. In addition to protoplasm, most cells also include the following Nucleus – the dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. It plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism. You can visualize the nucleus as the yolk of a raw egg. The cytoplasm is all the protoplasm of a cell that surrounds the nucleus. It is the watery fluid (food growth) that cells need for growth, reproduction, and self-repair. The protoplasm is in closed in the cell membrane. The cell membrane acts like a balloon to contain the protoplasm, and allows certain types of substances to pass through its walls. Cell reproduction and Division Mitosis is the process by which cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells called daughter cells. Favorable conditions to grow and thrive the cell must receive an adequate supply of food, oxygen and water. Cell Metabolism Metabolism is a chemical process that takes place in living organisms, whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities. Anabolism is the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. Catabolism is the process (or phase of metabolism) of breaking down larger substances of molecules into smaller ones. Tissues Tissues is a group (collection) of same kind of similar cells that perform a particular function. Connective tissue supports, protects, and bind together other tissues of the body. (Examples of connective tissue are bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, fascia (which separate muscles), and fat or adipose tissue. Epithelia tissue is the protective covering on the body surfaces. (Skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive, respiratory organs, and glands are all examples of epithelial tissue.) Liquid tissue carries food, waste products and hormones through the body (such as blood and lymph.) Muscular tissue contract and moves the various parts of the body. Nerve tissue carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. Organs and Body systems Organs are groups of tissues or structures of the body that are designed to accomplish or perform a specific function. Body systems are groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions. The Human body is composed of 10 major systems (Page 90) Circulatory – controls the steady circulation of the blood through he body by means of the heart and blood vessels. Digestive – changes food into nutrients and wastes; consists of mouth, stomach, intestines, salivary and gastric glands and other organs. Endocrine – Affects the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body; consists of specialized glands. Excretory – purifies the body by the elimination of waste matter; consists of kidneys, lover, skin, intestines, and lungs. Integumentary – serves as a protective covering and helps in regulating the body’s temperature; consists of skin, accessory organs such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails. Muscular – Covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; also contracts and moves various parts of the body; consists of muscles. Nervous – Controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently; consists of brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Reproductive – responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring. Respiratory – enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen, and eliminating carbon dioxide as a waste product; consists of lungs and air passages. Skeletal – physical foundation of the body; consists of the bones and movable and immovable joints.