Chapter 6 Non-State Actors Since the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the major actors of the international community were States When did the first IO appear? 1865 – the International Telegraphic Union In 1874, the second IO was created – the Universal Postal Union When was the first NGO created? 1863 – The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) ITU headquarters, Geneva UPU headquarters, Berne Examples of IOs WTO building in Geneva, Switzerland WHO Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland ILO Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland IMF, Headquarters in Washington DC, USA OAS Headquarters in Washington DC, USA EU (Commission), headquarters in Brussels, Belgium NATO Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium WTO WHO ILO IMF EU Commission International NGO examples CARE, one of the largest international relief and humanitarian organizations in the world. Save the Children Alliance CARITAS organization Differences between IO’s and NGO’s IO’s are composed by states IO’s are funded by States NGO’s create networks advocating policy changes Commonalities between IO’s and NGO’s Both are non-state Actors Characteristics of IO’s They are composed by member states Both try to influence governments They have internal organs They have special procedures for decisions making They all have a Permanent Secretariat Pascal Lamy (Belgium) is the fifth Director-General of the WTO. Number of IOs increased dramatically after WWII 1960s => 154 2007 => 246 The United Nations The UN is composed by 192 member states Members = observers Headquartered in New York and has offices in Geneva, The Hague, and Vienna Purposes of the UN To maintain international peace and security Achieve international cooperation in solving international problems Develop friendly relations among nations UN human rights Council, Geneva UN offices in Vienna Organs of the UN (pg 167 - 168) General Secretariat ICJ GGAA Security Council Economic & Social Council (ECOSOC) UNDP UNICEF Organs of the UN cont.. General Secretariat Headed by the Secretary General: Ban Ki-moon Born in South Korea The Secretariat is the staff of the UN and is composed by 8,900 staff members 8th Secretary General Received Masters in Public Administration from Harvard Administers Peace-keeping Operations (PKO) It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by UN bodies for their meetings. Translates documents into the Organization’s official languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish) Composed by: 5 Permanent Members 10 Non-Permanent members P-5 is composed by the U.S., China, France, Russia, and the UK Goals of the Security Council: Maintain International Peace and Security Authorize use of Military Force Four countries have campaigned to become Permanent members: India Brazil Germany Japan SECURITY COUNCIL Security council has authorized military intervention to provide for humanitarian relief. SOMALIA 1992 Security Council Res 794 authorized military operations to bring “humanitarian relief” to Somalia. SECURITY COUNCIL The Security Council authorizes establishment of Peace Keeping operations (PKO). UNAMIR (RWANDA) 1993 - 1996 UNPROFOR (CROATIA & BOSNIA HERZEGOVINA) 1992 - 1994 PKO REQUIERES CONSENT OF THE TERRITORIAL STATE. GOAL: MONITOR CEASE FIRE AGREEMENTS PROTECT CIVILIANS SEPARATE CONTENDING PARTIES & MAINTAIN ORDER PROHIBITED FROM USING FORCE EXCEPT IN SELF DEFENSE United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) 2005 - today United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo UNMIK (1999 – today UNAMID DARFUR 2006 - today Authorized to use force in order to enforce Peace agreement SECURITY COUNCIL The Security Council has authorized the economic sanctions for Human Rights violations…. Southern Rhodesia Southern Rhodesia 1964 – 1979 SOUTH AFRICA 1986 – 1990 Apartheid Government SECURITY COUNCIL Problem: Security Council does NOT authorize action against permanent members or against any situation that affects their interest(s). 1999 NATO militarily intervened Kosovo w/ out authorization of the Security Council Russia opposed military intervention within the Sec. Council. March 23, 1999 NATO authorized airstrikes against Serbians w/out authorization of the Security Council. Serb forces killed, assaulted, raped civilians and burned houses in Kosovo. Kosovo Albanians murdered, by Serbian forces. Rogove village, Kosovo (Jan.1999) KOSOVO The General Assembly Each state has 1 vote Issues resolutions (non-binding decisions) Makes recommendations to the Security Council regarding use of military force Considers admissions of new States Considers and approves the UN budget Elects non-permanent members of the Security Council Forum for negotiation of treaties First session of the United Nations General Assembly, January 10, 1946, in London. The UN Today UN General Assembly: membership 1945 - 51 member states 1970 127 member states 2008 192 member states Last country to join the UN Montenegro (2006) International Court of Justice Judicial Organ of the UN Created by the UN Charter in 1945 Located in The Hague (Netherlands) Composed of 15 judges Role: settle disputes between States Nicaraguan Case Nicaragua vs. United States ICJ Decision of 1986 Complaining State: Nicaragua Defendant State: United States ICJ found the USA in violation of: Non-Interference in Internal Affairs (art. 2 (7)) Prohibition of threat or use of force (art. 2 (4)) Violation of the sovereignty rights of the state (art. 2 (1)) Issue: U.S. supported and financed Para-military operations of the contras fighting against the communist Sandinista government ICJ ordered the U.S. payment of compensation for damages caused to Nicaragua Damage = 17 billion dollars After this case, the U.S. withdrew from the compulsory jurisdiction of the ICJ Reagan demonstrates his support for the Nicaraguan Contras The Contras, a counter-revolutionary group fought against the Sandinistas to return the Somoza regime to power in Nicaragua. 1979 – 1990) Child victim of a 'Contra' attack in Nicaragua Nicaraguan town after an attack by U.S.-backed Contras UN Offices and Agencies (pg 169) “The UN has become not one organization but a decentralized conglomerate of countless committees, boards, commissions, centers, offices, and agencies scattered around the globe.” Ex of UN offices: UNHCHR (UN High Commissioner for Human Rights – under General Secretariat) UNICEF (under ECOSOC) UN World Food Program (under General Secretariat) Ex of UN agencies ITU WIPO IAEA WTO WHO IMF WB FAO ILO UNESCO UN Budget (pg 170-171) By a 2/3 majority vote, the UNGA determined that contributions are based upon the states capacity to pay. The poorest countries of the UN pay the minimum 0.001% - equal to $13,000 annually Nation Assessed Percentage Amount in US Dollars 1. United States 22.00 $423,464,855 2. Japan 19.47 $374,727,900 3. Germany 8.66 $147,825,532 4. United Kingdom 6.13 $104,563,268 5. France 6.03 $102,907,868 9. China 2.05 $35,036,460 Fifth Committee makes an assessment every 3 years to determine contributions World Trade Organization (WTO) pg 173 Location: Geneva Number of States: 151 New members: Saudi Arabia (2005) Vietnam (2007) Tonga (2007) Each state has 1 vote Goal: trade liberalization The creation of the WTO was supported by the G-7 Antecedents: International Trade Organization (1945). It never came into force. World Trade Organization (WTO) ITO 1945 GATT 1947 WTO 1995 Other IA complementing GATT: Agreement on Agriculture Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights Agreement on subsidies Agreement on trade in services WTO Goals Monitors state compliance with GATT …and other international trade agreements Provides forum for further trade liberalization Manages disputes arising from trading partners (Dispute Settlement Body) 8 round negotiations for the reduction of tariff took place WTO Map Ex’s of WTO non-members Russia Afghanistan Iraq Iran Libya Sudan Yemen Ethiopia Goals of WTO Monitors state compliance with GATT provisions and other international trade agreements Agreement on Subsidies Agreement on Intellectual Property Rights Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures Provides forum for further trade liberalization Provides forum for negotiations of international trade agreements Manages disputes arising from trading partners Issue # 9: Criticisms of WTO Allows subsidies in agricultural products Lack of environmental regulations Lack of labor regulations Many jobs are outsourced to other countries WTO Dispute Resolution Hearings/Deliberations of the WTO Dispute Settlement Body are confidential The Secretariat chooses the panelists that investigate and decide cases Complainant state => Mexico Defendant state => US US law challenged => Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). GATT Panel => issued final report 1991 Mexico US Mexico won the challenge, but the findings weren’t formally adopted (US vetoed the decision). US did not agree with the Panel report. US threatened Mexico with affecting NAFTA if they did not comply w/ MMPA. (OLD GATT => Consensus from GATT members was necessary to adopt the panel decision TUNA DOLPHIN I (1991) Tuna Dolphin II (1994) Complainant state=> EEC Defendant state => US MMPA was challenged In 1994, a GATT panel ruled this time in favor of Europe. Ruling vetoed by US thanks to procedure that predated the WTO US POLICY THAT TUNA PRODUCTS BE LABELED “DOLPHIN SAFE” WERE NOT FOUND IN VIOLATION OF GATT. CONSUMERS HAVE THE CHOICE!! SHRIMP TURTLE CASE Case filed in 1996 Complaining states: India, Malaysia, Thailand, Pakistan Defendant state => US very similar situation The US lost the case, because it discriminated between WTO members. It provided countries in the western hemisphere — mainly in the Caribbean — technical and financial assistance and longer transition periods for their fishermen to start using turtle-excluder devices. WTO/DSB ordered the US to negotiate an International Agreement World Bank (pg 183) Created in 1944 Original name: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 184 member states Votes: determined by financial contributions Controlled by developed countries Major decisions require 85% supermajority US holds 16.4% of shares US has veto power WB President: Robert Zoellick (11th president) World Bank in Washington D.C. Paul Wolfowitz James D. Wolfensohn Goals of World Bank Fight against poverty Improve living standards of people in developing countries Running water made available by WB loans Loans granted for the advancement of education in Uganda Promotes equal rights for women Characteristics of WB Loans Long-term loans Preferential rates Conditionalities: Foster democracy Fight against corruption Reform the Judiciary Gain admission to WTO Privatization Cut gov’t expenditures International Monetary Fund (IMF) Created in 1944 185 member States Located in Washington D.C. Voting system based on contributions Goals of IMF Oversee the international monetary system Maintain exchange rate stability Balance of payment problems International Monetary Fund (IMF) Exchange rate instability: 3 mp = 1 dollar 5 mp = 1 dollar 8 mp = 1 dollar Exchange rate instability, discourages trade. Balance of Payment (BOP): “Measures the amount of money that goes IN and OUT the country” When a country Imports Money gets OUT When a country Exports Money gets IN BOP = IN - OUT IN > OUT BOP is positive OUT > IN BOP is negative Balance of Payment deficit IMF also attaches conditionalities European Union Membership has grown: 1997 – 15 members 2008 – 27 members 2 newest members: Bulgaria (2007) Romania (2007) 3 candidates: Croatia Macedonia Turkey The EU is an International Organization for economic integration European Union cont.. The first 15 original members: Belgium France Germany Italy Luxembourg Netherlands Denmark Ireland United Kingdom Greece Portugal Spain Austria Finland Sweden Rich, powerful countries The last 12 members since 2004: Czech Republic Slovakia Estonia Hungary Latvia Lithuania Malta Poland Slovenia Cyprus Romania Bulgaria Poorer economies, smaller populations 2007 “The EU coexists with a large number of other European International Organizations.” Examples: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Council of Europe Antecedents European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) 1951 European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) 1957 European Economic Community (ECC) 1957 West Germany Italy France Luxemburg Belgium Netherlands European Community (pg 187) These 3 organizations merged to form the European Community (EC) in 1967. EC 15 members The EC created a Custom Union- no tariff rates for members, same tariff rates for non-members The European Community became the EU in 1992 Treaty of Maastricht created the EU Common external tariff Four Freedoms Guaranteed under the EU Persons/labor (including workers w/in The 15 original members) Goods Services Capital (foreign Investment) Adoption of a single currency 12 countries have adopted the EURO Harmonization of market regulation Structure of EU Council of Ministers (Legislative Branch) EU Commission (Executive Branch) EU Parliament (Legislative Branch) EU Court of Justice Composed by 27 ministers Set general policy guidelines adopt (pass) law initiated by EU Commission Evaluate admission of new members Brussels, Belgium Run day-to-day activities of EU Administrative body Composed by 32 commissioners 2 commissioners:. France, GB, Italy., Spain, Germany. Initiate (propose) law Enforce EU law together with the ECJ Act as a guardian of the Treaties Manage EU funds Brussels, Belgium Strasbourg, France Brussels, Belgium Composed by 785 deputies Elected every 5 years Representation is proportional to population of country Adopts/veto law initiated by EU Commission Supervise the Commission activities Luxembourg Settles legal disputes between EU member states, EU institutions, businesses and individuals EU Law EU Commission (Initiates Law) EU Council (Adopts Law) EU Parliament (Adopts Law) Multi-National Corporations and Transnational Banks - Pg 205 (skip pgs 208 – 2218) Multi-National Corporations (MNC’s) Definition: business enterprises headquartered in one state that invest and operate extensively in other states. branches plants offices main office Why do MNC’s invest abroad? Cheap Labor (Outsourcing) Cheap raw materials Looser environmental regulations Tax advantages No tariffs Classification of Countries and Corporations according to their GNI (pg 210 -211) Foreign Direct Investment (pg 208) “Ownership of assets in one country by residents of another country for purposes of controlling the use of those assets.” Transnational Banks MNC’s have been facilitated by transnational banks All of the income made by MNC’s is channeled to Global North through Transnational Banks Banco Santander Do MNC’s influence the political system? MNC’s have become important players both internationally and domestically.