PSYC 240 Chapter 6 Notes Erik Erikson: Identity Theory Intimacy v. isolation Young adulthood: 18-35 Longer stage establish independence from parents and quasi-parental institutes (school) work and intimate relationships become important inability to establish intimacy can lead to isolation You can merge your identity with someone else and not lose it in the process! Basic strength: love Erikson said this was the ?greatest human virtue? Generativity v. Stagnation Adulthood: 35-55 years Feel need to be involved in guiding and teaching the next generation Extends beyond immediate family when unable to find outlet for generativity(stagnation similar to mid-life crisis (Jung) basic strength?Care Ego integrity v. Despair Last stage: 55+ Major endeavors near completion A lot of examination and reflection on life Look back with fulfillment and satisfaction(ego integrity Look back with frustration( feel despair Disgusted with ourselves Basic strength: wisdom/heritage Basic Weakness Opposite of basic strengths in stages Motivating characteristics that derive from unsatisfactory resolution of development crises Maldevelopment Ego consists of only one way to cope with conflict Questions About human Nature We all have the potential to do etc. Theory allows for optimism Only partially deterministic Personality affected more by learning and experience Assessment of Erikson?s theory Did work with Native Americans Psychohistorical Analysis Like biographical studies Psychological Tests Ego-identity Scale and Ego Identity Process Questionnaire based on his formulations Research on Erikson?s Theory Primary method-Case study Also used anthropological studies and play constructions Play constructions Children build a scene from dolls, blocks, toy animals and people, etc. Fathers treat children more gender-specifically than mothers do Trust and security Erikson?important to develop early sense of trust Holocaust Study?dealt with all stages except trust v. mistrust Positive events at later stages can counteract or overcome negative early experiences The Psychological Stages Adolescence Identity achievements?adolescents committed to occupational and ideological choices Moratorium?adolescents still undergoing identity crisis Foreclosure?adolescents who have not experienced identity crisis, but are firmly committed to an occupation and an ideology Identity diffusion?have no occupational or ideological commitments Alienated achievements?identity crisis, have no occupational goal, cling to critical beliefs of social and economic system Gender and Ego identity Women?s movement More women today include a career orientation as part of their ego identity Gender Preference Identity 4 stages 1. Sensitization 2. Identity Confusion 3. Identity Assumption 4. Commitment Reflections on Erikson?s Theory No formal training?did this play role in theory? Position of sex differences Developmental stages may not be applicable to women Theory may not apply to people in reduced economic circumstances
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