Mountain Glaciers also known as Valley Glaciers form at high altitudes and they affect the landscape by sharpening it.
Continental Glaciers also known as Ice Sheets form at high latitudes and they affect the landscape by flatining it and the Continental Glaciers are the largest.
The phenomenon in which a source of light mov- ing away from you very rapidly shifts to a lower frequency; that is, toward the red end of the spectrum.
The phenomenon in which a source of light moving toward you appears to have a higher frequency.
The phenomenon in which the frequency of
wave energy appears to change when a moving source of
wave energy passes an observer.
A term used to describe the outer gassy, Jupiter-like
planets (gas-giant planets)
A term used to describe the inner, Earth-like planets.
A short-lived, very bright object in space that re- sults from the cataclysmic explosion marking the death of a very large star; the explosion ejects large quantities of matter into space to form new nebulae.
The relatively rigid, nonflowable, outer 100- to
150-km-thick layer of the Earth; constituting the crust and the top part of the mantle.
floats on top of asthenosphere
crust and top of mantle
The layer of the mantle that lies between 100–150 km and 350 km deep; the asthenosphere is relatively
soft and can flow when acted on by force.
one must first determine the amount of matter making up the Earth.
Earth’s average density is 4.5 times the density of water
the average density of Earth exceeds that of its surface rocks.
indirect method to "sample" the earth's interior
Mass per unit volume
states simply that physical processes we observe today also operated in the past and were responsible for the formation of the ge- ologic features we see in outcrops.
Belts of solar wind particles and cosmic rays that surround the Earth, trapped by Earth’s magnetic field.
The record of ancient magnetism pre-
served in rock.
A continental margin that is not a plate
- lavas that flow out under water cool very rapidly and form a distinct shape
An ancient Greek idea sug-
gesting that the Earth sat motionless in the center of the Uni- verse while stars and other planets and the Sun orbited around it.
An idea proposed by Greek philosophers around 250 B.C.E. suggesting that all heavenly
objects including the Earth orbited the Sun.
The region affected by the force emanating
from a magnet.
Earth's magnetic field does switch
A coarse-grained, intrusive mafic igneous rock.
A space below ground filled with magma.
The idea that continents have moved and are still moving slowly across the Earth’s surface.
apparent polar-wander path
A path on the globe along which a magnetic pole appears to have wandered over time; in fact, the continents drift, while the magnetic pole stays
The rate at which heat rises from the Earth’s inte-
rior up to the surface.
A boundary at which one
lithosphere plate slips laterally past another.
A proposed Precambrian supercontinent that existed
around 1 billion years ago
-low viscosity bassalts
-occure at divergent spreading centers
a metamorphic rock that forms by the contact metamorphism ofshale
Death of species
Causes of Extinctions – Global climate change, tectonicactivity, predator or competitor, asteroid impacts.
- Stops to find oil
- Surface mapping
- Seismic imaging
- Exploratory drilling
the downward movement of a block of material along a curved surface.
rivers/streams bend/curve at nearly right angles, created when rivers/streams flow along fractures or joints in rocks
· White Clay Creek
Bottom of the ocean floor, flat plain extending seaward at continental slope, underlain entirely by basalt, flattest part of the earth (have seamounts and abyssal hills)
body of ice on land, derived from snow
presence of ozone causes temperature to increase with altitude
No subduction occurs because its impossible to subduct continental lithosphere
The crust gets stacked and lifts up vertically creating tall mountain ranges.
Ex: Himalayas: collision of India and Asia. generates metamorphism
mineralogy: quartz k feldspar little femg
temp of formation: low
type of volcano: highly explosive
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