children must be able to refer to themselves as distinct from others. Ex: Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt.
monitor their children's emotions, view their children's negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in labeling emotions, and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions.
view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions.
involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.
children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties, removed from the control of people.
the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately.
Social role theory (Alice Eagly)
states that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men.
Psychoanalytic theory of gender (Freud)
at age 5 or 6, the child develops anxious feelings, and subsequently identifies with the same sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same-sex parent's characteristics.
Social cognitive theory of gender
emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender inappropriate behavior.
Mother's socialization strategies
In many cultures, mothers socialize their daughters to be more obedient and responsible than their sons. They also place more restrictions on their daughters autonomy.
Fathers' socialization strategies
Fathers show more attention to their sons than to their daughters, engage in more activities with their sons, and put forth more effort to promote their sons' intellectual development.
Gender schema theory
states that gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture.
a cognitive structure, a network of associations that guide an individual's perceptions.
organizes the world in terms of female and male.
Authoritarian parenting (Baumrind's)
a restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. Places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange.
Authoritative parenting (Baumrind's)
a parenting style encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the child. Associated with social competence.
Neglectful parenting (Baumrind's)
a style of parenting in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child's life, it is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control.
Indulgent parenting (Baumrind's)
a style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Indulgent parenting is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control.
characterized by the infliction of physical injury as a result of punching, beating, kicking,biting, burning, shaking, or otherwise harming a child.
characterized by failure to provide for the child's basic needs.
includes fondling of genitals, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, exhibitionism, and commercial exploitation through prostitution or production of pornographic materials.
includes acts or omissions by parents or other caregivers that have caused, or could cause, serious behavioral, cognitive, or emotional problems.
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