OBJECTIVE 6.11 ? Compare and contrast the effects of continuous and partial reinforcement and describe, give an example of, and explain the effects of the following schedules of partial reinforcement: a. fixed ratio (FR); b. variable ratio (VR); c. fixed interval (FI); and d. variable interval (VI). Continuous reinforcement- means that a reinforcer follows every response Partial reinforcement- reinforcers do not follow every response. They have patterns called schedules of reinforcement (plans for determining which responses will be reinforced). Example: Going to gamble and you pull the slot lever 5 times and nothing comes out, but before you leave you decide to pull the lever one more time and you win. You do it again and you win and then the next you don?t. You will have that mentality of ?just one more time?. Partial reinforcement effect-responses acqured by partial reinforcement are highly resistant to extinction. Fixed Ratio (FR)- a set number of correct responses must be made to obtain a reinforcer. Ex.-If you only followed every third response, or every other response Variable Ratio (VR)- varied number of responses must be made to get a reinforcer. On average ____ response. Is more resistant to extinction than fixed ratio Ex.- Golf?on an average of one good shot in 5 or 10 may be all tahts needed to create a sports fanatic. Fixed interval (FI)- first responses made after the time period has passed is reinforced. Responses made during the time interval are not reinforced. Ex- A rat has to wait 30 seconds after last reinforced response (pulling lever for food) before he will be able to pull it again for more food. He can push on the lever between that given time but will not get reinforced. Variable Interval (VI)- reinforcement is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time. Produce slow, steady response rates and tremendous resistance to extinction. Ex.- When you dial a number and get a busy signal, (getting through=reward) you may wait 30 sec. or 30 min.. Ex.-Success in fishing OBJECTIVE 6.13 ? Explain how punishers can be defined by their effects on behavior; discuss the three factors that influence the effectiveness of punishment; and differentiate the effects of severe punishment from mild punishment. Punisher- any consequencde that reduces the frequency of a target behavior. A child can throw a toy and his mother slaps him on the wrist and the child doesn?t do it again. OR A child is in need of attention from his parents who both work full time and throws a toy and the mother slaps the child on the wrist and that could reinforce the toy throwing. Factors of Punishment Timing- punishment best works when it occurs when the reponse is being made or immediately afterward. Consistency- punishment is given each time a reponse occurs Intensity- Severe Punishment- can be extremely effective in stopping behavior Mild Punishment- only temporarily suppresses a response
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