Drive or feeling of discomfort originally defined as being caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and subsequently defined as being caused by performing an action that is discrepant from ones customary topically positive self conception
Tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of our emotional reaction to future negative events.
Post decision Dissonance
Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives.
Unscrupulous strategy whereby a salesperson induced a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost, subsequently claims it was an error, and then raises the price; frequently the customer will agree to make the purchase at inflated price
Justification of Effort
The tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain
A reason or an explanation for dissonant personal behavior that resides outside the individual
The reduction of dissonance by changing something about oneself
Counter attitudinal Advocacy
Stating an opinion or attitude that runs counter to one's private belief or attitude.
Arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that run counter to their behavior and then reminding them of the inconsistency between what they advocated and their behavior. The purpose is to lead individuals to more responsible behavior
The dissonance aroused when individuals lack sufficient external justification for having resisted a desired activity or object, usually resulting in individuals' devaluing the forbidden activity or object.
A long lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self justification
Large Reward or severe punishment > X > Y
X- External justification ( I do or think this because i have to)
Y- Temporary Change
Small Reward or mild punishment > X >Y
X- Internal justification ( I do or think this because i have convinced myself that it;s right)
Y- Lasting change.
Something Inconsistent > Not a good justification > dissonance > Leads to X
Change of attitude to something consistent.
Famous Psychologist studied individuals who believed the world was going to end. Got students to go into "festing" to see how they created justification.
Counter Attitudinal Advocacy
Something inconsistent with beliefs, attitude changes due to behavior.
Free Choice Method
Two choices ( Really hard). The one chosen becomes better, the other worse.
Ask people to exert a lot of effort in order to receive output. Ex. Hazing & Sexual experiment discussed in class.
Dissonance in Cultures
Japanesse only show dissonance when others come into play. Americans are very individualistic. Hookado looks like american sin results of dissonance. East is commonly very interdependent.
Dissonance with children under 4 and monkeys
Applies to even sub-humans. Free choice experiments with colors of m&ms
Foot in the door effect
(sales) when doing something little, more prone to do bigger things. Behavior influences behavior.
Theory of behavior
You change law & behavior/ attitudes will follow.
Forbidden Toy Experiment
6 wks after, kids who had received a threat of mild punishment were less likely to play with the forbidden toy than the kids who received a threat of severe punishment. mild threat kids provide justification by devaluating attractiveness of the toy.
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