Two or more people who regularly interact on the basis of mutual expectations and share a common identity.
A collection of individuals who have at least one attribute in common but otherwise don’t necessarily interact.
A collection of people who are in the same place at the same time but who otherwise don’t necessarily interact, except in the most superficial of ways, or have anything else in common.
A group that is usually small, that is characterized by extensive interaction and strong emotional ties, and that lasts over time.
A group that is larger and more impersonal than a primary group and that exists to achieve a specific purpose.
A group that sets a standard for guiding our own behavior and attitudes.
A group to which members feel particularly loyal and take great pride in belonging.
A group with which an in-group feels it is competing for various kinds of rewards and compared to which the in-group feels superior.
The totality of relationships that link us to other people and groups and through them to still other people and groups.
A two-person group.
A three-person group.
A leader whose main focus is to achieve group goals and accomplish group tasks.
A leader whose main focus is to maintain and improve the quality of relationships among group members and more generally to ensure group harmony.
Leadership with a primary focus on achieving group goals and on rigorous compliance with group rules.
Leadership that involves extensive consultation with group members on decisions.
Leadership that allows a group to function on its own.
The tendency of group members to remain silent and, against their better judgments, to go along with the desires and views of other group members.
Large secondary groups that follow explicit rules and procedures to achieve specific goals and tasks.
Organizations that people join to provide them an income or some other personal benefit.
Formal organizations that people join to pursue their moral goals and commitment.
Formal organizations that people enter involuntarily.
A formal organization with certain organizational features designed to achieve goals in the most efficient way possible.
In a bureaucracy, a greater devotion to rules and regulations than to organizational goals (red tape).
Iron Law of Oligarchy
Robert Michels’s prediction that large organizations inevitably develop an oligarchy, or the undemocratic rule of many people by just a few people, because their leaders monopolize knowledge and act to advance their own positions.
The revealing by an employee of organizational practices that the employee believes to be illegal and/or immoral.
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