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viewing children as discovering or constucting virtualy all knowledge about their world through their own activity
they start with their own structures, then they act on them, then they modify their structures to fit reality
***the order is rooted in bioogy reflects the brain's increasing adeptness to analyze and interpret experiences common to all children
specific psychological structures that are organized ways of making sense of experience
Piaget says they change with age
example-- a grasping scheme changes as an infant gets older as it becomes more voluntary
internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate
marks the change from sensorimotor to the cogntive based development
includes images ( mental pictures of objects, people, and spaces) and concepts (categories in which similar objects or events are grouped together)
we use our current schemes to interpret the external world
example: the preschooler who sees a camel at the zoo and calls out "horse" because it fits her schema of a horse
we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely
example-- a preschooler calls a camel a umpy horse because they realize that it does not fit the schema of a horse
another way in which schemas change
a process that occurs internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system
example---a baby eventually relates dropping to throwing
piaget says it is a true part of reaching equilibrium
the six substages of sensorimotor
BIRTH to 1 MONTH
reflexes are inflexible
example: grasping reflex-- they develop schemas
Primary Circular Reaction
SUBSTAGE 2-- 1 to 4 Months
infants start to gain voluntary control over their own actions--centered on their own body
repeat chance behaviors that are largely motivated by basic needs
begin to vary behavior in response to environmental demands (ex. they open their mouths differently for a mouth than a spoon)
limited anticipation of events -- ex. they may stop crying when their mom comes in the room
SUBSTAGE 3-- 4 to 8 MONTHS
infants sit up and become skilled at reaching for and manipulating objects
try to repeat interesting events in the surrounding environment that are caused by their own actions
they have more control over their behavior so they can imitate others behavior more effectively (but not novel behaviors)
ex--- moving an object from hand to hand or developing the scheme of "hitting"
Intentional or goal directed behavior
SUBSTAGE 4-- 8 to 12 months
SUBSTAGE 4-- 8 to 12 MONTHS
SUBSTAGE 4--- 8 to 12 months
8 to 12 months
intentional or goal-directed behavior
ability to find a hidden object in the first location in which it is hiddent (object permanence)
improved anticipation of events--ex. crawling towards mom and whimpering when she puts on her coat
imitation of behaviors slightly different from those the infant usually performs--ex.--they might try to stir with a spoon or push a toy car
***they draw on intentional behavior, purposefully modifying schemes to fit an observed action!!
12 to 18 MONTHS
18 months to 2 years
OR they will show babies an expected event (one that follows physical laws) and an unexpected event (a variation of the first event that violates physical laws)---there is heightened attention to the unexpected even which suggests that the infant is surprised by a deviation from physical reality--and, therefore, is aware of that aspect of the physical world
cognitive attainments of infants--8 to 12 months
** the most obvious change is an extraordinary INCREASE in MENTAL REPRESENTATION
involves symbol usage and is language based
occurs before logical thought
What is significant about make-believe play in the preoperational period?
it is an example of the development of representation in early childhood
through pretending, children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes
it develops significantly over time to show children's symbolic mastery
1. play increasingly detaches from the real-life conditions associated with it-- early on, children imitate adults' actions and are not yet flexible (the only use objects for what they should be used for). But later on they are easily able to imagine objects and events
2. Play becomes less self-centered-- they at first only feed themselves, but later direct their actions to others
4. Play includes more complex combinations of schemes-- children combine pretend schemes with those of peers in sociodramatic play
According to Piaget...
1. SCRIBBLES-- 18 months.....random, full arm scribbles, it is more about the chidren's gestures than the icture. (ex---a child moves the crayon up and down and says rabbit hop)
2. FIRST REPRESENTATIONAL FORMS- 2 to 3 years....scribbles are more controlled and grouped. more wrist and finger development. if they decide that the picture looks like something, they will label it.
3. MORE REALISTIC DRAWINGS-- 4 years...
9-10 years = 3D!
In rich artistic cultures...
In less artistic cultures...
viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right AND a symbol
children under age three have troubles with this, but it can be helped by....
= mental representations of actions that obey logical rules-- THEY DON'T HAVE THIS
RATHER, their thinking is rigid, limited to one aspect and strongly influeced by what appears at the moment
7 to 11 years
children in this stage have a much better understanding of space, which is shown in...
DIRECTIONS--mental rotations--they are albe to take on someone else's frame of reference, they can give clear directions by using a "mental walk" strategy
COGNITIVE MAPS = children's mental representatiions of familiar large-scale spaces, such as their school or neighborhood. they include landmarks, but they are in an organized rout of travel. they get the concept of overall space and combine their knowledge of specific areas to form this general concet
Non Western Children
Concrete Operations and Language
How does schooling effect the tasks at hand in the concrete operational stage?
infants begin life with innate, special purpose knowledge systems referred to as domains of though. Each of these "prewired" understanding permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development of certain aspects of cognition.
believe that infants could not make sense of the multifaceted stimulation around them without having been genetically "set up"
see development as domain specific, with each domain developing separately
includes linguisitic, psychological, biological, physical, and numerical knowledge
the capactity to keep track of objects and their effects on one another
look at evedence to prove that young infants are aware of basic object properties and that they build on this knowledge quickly, acquiring more detailed understanding
examlple-- 2 month olds seem to realize that one solid object cannot move through another solid object
Joyce's example--- how is the ball going to fall?
the capacity to keep track of multiple objects and to add and subtract small quantities
believed that infants have basic numbers
evidence suggests that babies can discriminate quantities up to three and can use that to perform simple arithmetic--both addition and subtraction
may be able to distinguish between large sets of items when the difference between those sets is very great (at least 2x)
understanding that people have mental states that differ--- very vital in survivng for human groups
inheritance of bodily processes such as birth, growth, illness, death
some think that this domain may have a weak innateness because it requires a lengthy process of construction based on experience
Children as naive theorists-- theory theory
CORE KNOWLEDGE PERSPECTIVE
theory theory-- belief that children form naive theories or explanations of events that differ between core domains. After observing an event, children draw on innate concepts to explain, or theorize about, its cause. Then they test their naive theory against experience, revising it when it cannot adequately account for new information
combination of nature and nurture-- how we process and analyze is differet (nature) and we have to experience it (nurture) and then modify it!
children reason about events in ways consistent with that domain
preschoolers typically offer psychological, physical or biological explanations that are linked appropriately to the behaviors of humans, animals, and objects
example-- younger children often use psychological knowledge to explain biological processes. i.e they might try to say that they can TELL a pain to go away....but as they get older they realize that they cannot control bioogical processes
Some crituques of core knowledge
assisted discovery via dialogue while engaged in culturally important tasks
learning is socially based---so you cannot separate learning from the context or environment
language comes first then development
Vygotsky thought that it language served as a foundation of higher processes, by...
* shown that children use it with appropriately challenging task
* children who use it freely show better task performance
* also important for children with behavioral and learning problems because it can compensate for some cognitive processes
How does Piaget's view on self talk differ?
He called it egocentric speech.
thought that it showed that young children can't take the perspective of others
believed that cognitive development would bring an end to egocentric speech
Zone of Proximal Development
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