power of chief executive to convince legislators, administrators and the general public that their policies should be adopted.
Instruments, tools of leadership
various mechanisms such as legislative support, policy initiatives, and emergency decision-making powers available to chief executives to help direct bureaucratic behavior
budget prepared by chief executive and their central budget offices for submission to the legislature for analysis, consideration, review, change and enactment
constitutional power of an elected chief executive to overrule an appropriation, bill, or decision by the legislature.
Line item veto
disapprove some portions of a bill while approve of others. Unconstitutional for presidential use.
authority delegated by Congress to the executive branch to add or subtract staff position, or to restructure organizational arrangement, to achieve policy goals as well as increased economy, efficiency and effectiveness of bureaucratic agencies