Sarah L.

electronic structure

the arrangement of electrons in an atom or molecule

electromagnetic radiation

a form of energy that has wave characteristics and that propagates through a vaccum at the characteristic speed of 3.00X10^8

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wavelength

the distance between identical points on successive waves

frequency

the number of times per second that one complete wavelength passes a given point

quantum

the smallest increment of radiant energy that may be absorbed or emitted

Planck's constant

the constant that relates the energy and frequency of a photon, E=hv

photoelectric effect

the emissions of electrons from a metal surface induced by light

photon

the smallest increment of radiant energy; with frequency v has and energy equal to hv

spectrum

the distribution among various wavelengths of the radiant energy emitted or absorbed by an object

continuous spectrum

a spectrum that contains radiation distributed over all wavelengths

line spectrum

a spectrum that contains radiation at only specific wavelenghts

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ground state

the lowest-energy or most-stable state

excited state

a higher energy state then the the ground state

momentum

the product of the mass, m, and the velocity, v, of an object

matter waves

the term used to describe the wave characteristics of a particle

uncertainty principle

a principle stating that there is an inherent uncertainty in the precision with which we can simultaneously specify the position and momentum of a particle

wave function

a mathematical description of an allowed energy state (an orbital) for an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom

probability density

a value that represents the probability that an electron will be found at a given point in space

orbital

an allowed energy state of an electron in the quantum mechanical model of the atom

electron shell

a collection of orbitals that have the same value of n

subshell

one or more orbitals with the same quantum numbers n and l

radial probability function

the probability that the electron will be found at a certain distance from the nucleus

node

a locus of points an atom at which the electron density is zero

degenerate

a situation in which two or more orbitals have the same energy

electron spin

a property of the electron that makes it behave as a tiny magnet

spin magnetic quantum number

quantum number associated with electron spin

Pauli exclusion principle

a rule stating that no two electrons in an atom may have the same quantum numbers

electron configuration

a particular arrangement of electrons in orbitals of an atom

Hund's rule

each orbital has one electron placed in it before pairing of electrons in orbitals

core electron

the electrons that are not in the outermost shell of an atom

valence electron

the outermost electrons of an atom; occupy orbitals occupied in the nearest noble gas element of lower atomic number

transition elements

elements that occur in the d-orbitals which are partially occupied

lanthanide elements

element in which the 4f subshell is only partially occupied

actinide elements

element in which the 5f orbitals are only partially occupied

representative element

an element from within the s and p blocks of the periodic table

f-block metals

lanthanide and actinide elements in which the 4f and 5f orbitals are partially occupied

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