2-16-10 Chapter 6 Social Control & Deviance What is Social Deviance? Deviance is any transgression of socially established norms (remember, norms are part of culture) Minor transgressions can be described as informal deviance These generate informal sanctions by other citizens Formal deviance or crime involves the violation of laws These initiate formal sanctions by law enforcement Functionalist Approaches Social cohesion: the way people form social bonds, relate to and get along with each other on a day-to-day basis Emily Durkheim: Mechanical solidarity ? based on the punitive enforcement of the sameness of society?s parts Durkheim ties this to pre-modern societies Organic solidarity ? based on rehabilitative justice maintaining the interdependence of differentiated parts Durkheim sees this as unique to modern societies Functionalist Approaches Social control ? whether punitive or restitutive ? is the set of mechanisms that Create normative compliance in individuals and Punish or rehabilitate transgressions for transgressions Normative compliance is abiding by the conventional norms and rules of group life For Functionalists: what sanctions do is re-affirm the ?goodness? of those who are normatively compliant more than they punish ?bad? transgressors Symbolic Interactionist Theories Labeling Theory ? related to socialization People un/consciously notice how others see or label them, and many, over time, internalize these labels, accept them and act accordingly In this way, deviance is, and deviants are, constructed through social interaction Symbolic Interactionist Theories Stigma ? labeling squared Negative social label A stigma changes your behavior toward others and changes their self- and social identity Has serious consequences for stigmatized groups Think of the ?undeserving poor?, ?illegal immigrants?, ?unrepentant law breakers?, ?inveterate gamblers?, ?predatory homosexuals?, ?irresponsible students?, ?Islamofascists?, ?feminazis?, etc Symbolic Interactionist Theories Zimbardo?s Broken Window Theory Explores how material settings and social cues impact the way individuals act Normatively compliant folks are more frequently deviant when environmental cues suggest that such behavior might be more permissible Crime Street crime Is associated in the minds of the mainstream with violence, gangs, and poverty when it is much more frequently about property damage and theft White-collar crime Committed by professionals against the public, and employer or other business, government agency, etc. Corporate crime Type of white-collar crime committed by the officers or executives of a company Americans are far more concerned with street rather than white collar crime, even though the latter hurts far more people far more seriously Deviance and Crime Differential Association Theory Basically, who you hang out with matters, the more you hang out with deviants, the more likely you are to become one Differential Opportunity Theory Basically, the more prevalent opportunities for deviant and illegal behavior are, the more likely you are to engage in them? independent of race, class, or gender There are two policy options then Increase legal opportunities for those in high crime areas ? APR Increase the costs of participating in illegal activities ? the book Crime It can be difficult to measure crime rates over time for a variety of reasons, including: Changes in definition & enforcement of crime Issues of under- or over-reporting some crimes Improvements in forensic technology Crime Reduction Deterrence theory argues that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits AND the idea that potential criminals weigh costs and benefits the same way as non-criminals stiffer penalties, increased prison terms, and stricter parole guidelines should, according to this theory, help reduce crime in fact, they?ve all increased recidivism deterrence fails if crimes are not rationally calculated out, if the law and criminals calculate differently, and if criminals rationally calculate that they?ll not get caught
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